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Latest release

National, state and territory population

Statistics about the population and components of change (births, deaths, migration) for Australia and its states and territories

Reference period
December Quarter 2019
Released
18/06/2020
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Key statistics

  • Australia’s population was 25,522,169 people at 31 December 2019.
  • The quarterly growth was 70,200 people (0.3%).
  • The annual growth was 349,800 people (1.4%).
  • 39.8% of annual growth was due to natural increase, and 60.2% was due to net overseas migration.

National

Annual population change

In the year ending 31 December 2019, Australia's population grew by 349,800 people (1.4%).

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  1. Annual growth calculated at the end of each quarter.
  2. All data to 30 June 2016 is final, September 2016 to June 2018 is revised and estimates for September 2018 onwards are preliminary and are subject to revision.

Australia's population growth is comprised of natural increase (births minus deaths) and net overseas migration (migration arrivals minus migration departures).

Components of quarterly population change

In the December 2019 quarter, natural increase:

  • was 34,300 people
  • increased by 2,000 people since the previous quarter
     

In the December 2019 quarter, net overseas migration:

  • was 35,900 people
  • decreased by 26,200 people since the previous quarter
     
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Components of annual population change

In the year ending 31 December 2019, natural increase:

  • was 139,200 people
  • decreased by 7,600 people (5.2%) since the previous year
  • contributed 39.8% to Australia's annual population growth
     

In the year ending 31 December 2019, net overseas migration:

  • was 210,700 people
  • decreased by 41,600 people (16.5%) since the previous year
  • contributed 60.2% to Australia's annual population growth
     
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  1. Annual components calculated at the end of each quarter.

Births and deaths

Births

In the year ending 31 December 2019:

  • there were 305,800 births
  • births increased by 2,200 (0.7%) since the previous year
     

Deaths

In the year ending 31 December 2019:

  • there were 166,700 deaths
  • deaths increased by 9,800 (6.2%) since the previous year
     

Overseas migration arrivals and departures

Overseas migration arrivals

In the year ending 31 December 2019:

  • there were 533,500 people immigrating to Australia
  • arrivals decreased by 890 people (0.2%) since the previous year
     

Overseas migration departures

In the year ending 31 December 2019:

  • there were 322,900 people emigrating from Australia
  • departures increased by 40,700 people (14.4%) since the previous year

States and territories

Annual population change

  • All states and territories, except the Northern Territory, had positive population growth over the year ending 31 December 2019.
  • Victoria had the highest growth rate (1.9%).
  • The Northern Territory had the lowest growth rate (-0.4%).
     

Annual population change by state and territory

 Population at 31 Dec 2019 ('000)Change over previous year ('000)Change over previous year (%)
New South Wales
8,129.0
90.9
1.1
Victoria
6,651.1
122.2
1.9
Queensland
5,130.0
79.3
1.6
South Australia
1,759.2
15.7
0.9
Western Australia
2,639.1
33.2
1.3
Tasmania
537.0
5.2
1.0
Northern Territory
244.8
-0.9
-0.4
Australian Capital Territory
427.4
4.2
1.0
Australia (a)
25,522.2
349.8
1.4
a. Includes Other Territories comprising Jervis Bay Territory, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Norfolk Island.

State and territory population change is comprised of natural increase, net overseas migration, and net interstate migration (interstate arrivals minus interstate departures).

Components of annual population change

For the year ending 31 December 2019:

  • natural increase was the major contributor to population change in Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory
  • net interstate migration loss was the largest component of population change in the Northern Territory
  • net overseas migration was the major contributor to population change in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania.
     
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Natural increase by state and territory

 NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACT
Births
98,905
77,221
61,734
19,490
33,539
5,753
3,659
5,521
Deaths
56,066
41,266
32,470
13,964
15,040
4,664
1,142
2,033
Natural increase
42,839
35,955
29,264
5,526
18,499
1,089
2,517
3,488

Net overseas migration by state and territory

 NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACT
Overseas arrivals
185,125
164,027
90,006
26,792
47,928
5,692
4,936
8,974
Overseas departures
114,580
88,470
62,862
12,718
29,066
3,057
4,401
7,683
Net overseas migration
70,545
75,557
27,144
14,074
18,862
2,635
535
1,291

Net interstate migration by state and territory

 NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACT
Interstate arrivals
95,315
87,879
106,628
24,603
32,018
14,041
13,942
21,675
Interstate departures
117,762
77,230
83,700
28,464
36,142
12,603
17,936
22,264
Net interstate migration
-22,447
10,649
22,928
-3,861
-4,124
1,438
-3,994
-589

Notes

Changes to this issue

Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2018-19 (cat. no. 3218.0) was released on the 25th March 2020. Table 4, Population, Major population regions, in this publication has been updated accordingly.

Migration, Australia, 2018-19 (cat. no. 3412.0) was released on the 28th April 2020. Table 8, Estimated resident population, Country of birth, in this publication has been updated accordingly.

COVID-19 and 2019/20 Australian bushfires

Statistics in this publication largely predate COVID-19.

To ensure the ongoing production of fit-for-purpose official population estimates through the COVID-19 pandemic, the ABS has been assessing the likely impact of changed traveller behaviour on preliminary Net Overseas Migration (NOM) estimates, a component of ERP. From this release, the ABS has introduced more frequent revisions to NOM to ensure the suite of demographic statistics continue to be of high quality, and reflect the most timely data available. Preliminary NOM estimates will be revised every quarter over four quarters, instead of once after four quarters, until it becomes final. These more frequent revisions will ensure the most timely and accurate data flows through to ERP.

It should be noted that the model that underpins the preliminary NOM estimates utilises all available overseas movements data, including some data for January through April 2020. As a result, some impacts from changed traveller behaviour may be observed in this release. For further information see the Information Paper: Improvements to estimation of net overseas migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004).

The Australian summer bushfires of 2019/20 had no observed impact on the statistics in this publication.

Data downloads - time series spreadsheets

Table 1. Population change, summary - Australia ('000)

Table 2. Population change, components - States and territories (number)

Document content:

Population components prior to September 2016 will not sum to total population growth due to intercensal difference. Components for September 2016 onwards will sum to total population growth as the intercensal difference for this period will not be known until after the 2021 Census.

Intercensal difference is the difference between the preliminary ERP for 30 June in a Census year (carried forward from the previous Census base using births, deaths and migration data) and the final ERP for the same time point (based on the new Census). The intercensal difference by age and sex for each state and territory is spread evenly across the intercensal quarters. Thus intercensal difference acts as a balancing item that when combined with births, deaths and migration equals total population growth for that period.

For more information see Australian Demographic Statistics, Dec 2017 Feature Article: Final rebasing of Australia's population estimates using the 2016 Census.

Table 4. Estimated resident population, states and territories (number)

Table 16A. Interstate arrivals, states and territories (persons)

Table 16B. Interstate departures, states and territories (persons)

Table 51. Estimated resident population by single year of age, New South Wales

Table 52. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Victoria

Table 53. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Queensland

Table 54. Estimated resident population by single year of age, South Australia

Table 55. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Western Australia

Table 56. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Tasmania

Table 57. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Northern Territory

Table 58. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Australian Capital Territory

Table 59. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Australia

Data downloads - data cubes

Australian demographic statistics tables

Population by age and sex tables

Standard population for use in age-standardisation table