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Migration, Australia

Statistics on Australia's international migration, internal migration (interstate and intrastate), and the population by country of birth

Reference period
2017 - 2018
Released
3/04/2019

Key statistics

  • There were 7.3 million migrants living in Australia in 2018. 
  • Australia's population increased by 237,200 people due to net overseas migration. 
  • The majority of migrant arrivals and departures were on temporary visas.
  • 392,700 people moved interstate, an increase of 4.3% from the previous year. 

Australia's population by country of birth

Key statistics

In 2018, there were 7.3 million migrants living in Australia. This was 29% of the population that were born overseas. One year earlier, in 2017, there were 7.1 million people born overseas.

Every single country from around the world was represented in Australia's population in 2018. People born in:

  • England (992,000) continue to be the largest group of overseas-born living in Australia. However, this has dropped from a peak of just over a million (1,013,000 people) in 2013
  • China (651,000) remained in second place from 2017 with strong growth since 2002
  • India (592,000) moved into third place dropping the New Zealand born (568,000) down to fourth place
  • Australia (17.7 million) had increased 188,000 during the year
     

About this data

Australia's estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is measured at 30 June each year. This data is available at the national level annually.

For state and territory see the following chapter — State and Territory Population by Country of Birth. It is only available for Census years.

Australia's population by country of birth

Historically, more people immigrate to, than emigrate from, Australia thereby adding to the growth of the national population. The various waves of migrants from numerous countries over time, has had an important effect on the diversity of Australia's population.

High levels of immigration in the years before 1891 resulted in 32% of the population enumerated as overseas-born in the first country wide census in 1891. In 2018 the proportion of Australia's population born overseas was 29%.

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  1. Census years only until 1981. Post 1981 based on estimated resident population at 30 June.
  2. Estimates from December quarter 2017 are preliminary — see paragraph 9 of the Methodology page.
     

In 2018, those born in England (992,000 people) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, accounting for 4.0% of Australia's total population. The Chinese born (651,000 people), having recently moved into second position, accounted for 2.6% of the population.

Table 1.2 Australia's population by country of birth - 2018(a)
Country of birth(b)Persons%(c)
England992,0004.0
China651,0002.6
India592,0002.4
New Zealand568,0002.3
Philippines278,0001.1
Vietnam256,0001.0
South Africa189,0000.8
Italy187,0000.7
Malaysia174,0000.7
Scotland135,0000.5
All overseas-born7,342,00029.4
Australia-born17,650,00070.6
  1. Estimates are preliminary.
  2. With top 10 overseas-born countries listed for 2018.
  3. Proportion of the total population of Australia. 
     
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  1. Top 10 countries of birth are at 30 June 2018.
  2. Estimates from December quarter 2017 are preliminary - see paragraph 9 of the Methodology page.
     

Country of birth by age and sex

There are differences in the age structure of people born in Australia and those born overseas. As seen below, those born in Australia dominate the younger age groups, while the overseas born increases from the 20-24 age group which in part, is due to international students studying in Australia. The main reason there are less overseas-born in the very young age groups is that most people are far less likely to migrate with young families.

In 2018 the highest proportion of the population were the:

  • 30-34 age group (2.9%) of those born overseas for both males (1.4%) and females (1.5%)
  • 0-4 age group (6.1%) of those born in Australia also for both males (3.1%) and females (3.0%)
     

Ten years ago in 2008 the highest proportion of the population were the:

  • 45-49 age group (2.3%) of those born overseas for both males (1.1%) and females (1.2%)
  • 0-4 age group (6.2%) of those born in Australia, similar to 2018
     
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  1. Australia-born and overseas-born persons as a proportion of Australia's total population.
  2. Estimates from December quarter 2017 are preliminary—see paragraphs 9–10 of the Methodology page.
     

Median age and sex ratio

The median age is useful to assess the changing age structure of a given population over time. It is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.

The median age of the overseas-born population has gradually decreased from a decade ago to now be 44 years of age in 2018. On the other hand, the median age of the Australian born population has gradually increased over time to now be 34 years of age. The decrease in the median age of the overseas-born population is having a positive effect on the age structure of Australia by slowing the ageing of the total population.

Migrants from countries who were part of the post-second world war migration streams were now generally older, for example the Italian born population have a median age of 71 years. Whereas, those from more recent groups of migrant arrivals are younger, for example the Chinese and Indian born both had a median age of 34 years. This is the same as those born in Australia.

Table 1.5 Australia's population by country of birth - 2018(a)
Country of birth(b)Median age(c)
England56
China34
India34
New Zealand43
Philippines40
Vietnam46
South Africa43
Italy71
Malaysia39
Scotland59
All overseas-born44
Australian-born34
  1. Estimates are preliminary.
  2. With top 10 overseas-born countries listed for 2018.
  3. Median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.
     

When analysing those countries of birth in 2018 within Australia (those with a population of 100 or more), the group with the:

  • oldest median age was from Latvia at 77 years of age
  • youngest median age was from the Cayman Islands at 12 years of age
  • highest sex ratio was from Benin (with 227 males per 100 females)
  • lowest sex ratio was from Turkmenistan (with 42 males per 100 females)

State and territory populations by country of birth

Key statistics

In 2016, the proportion of Australians born overseas was just under 29%. However, this varies across the nation.

At the state and territory level the proportion of the population born overseas was as follows:

  • Western Australia had the highest proportion — 35%.
  • Tasmania had the lowest — 13%.
  • New South Wales — 30%.
  • Victoria — 31%.
  • Queensland — 24%.
  • South Australia — 24%.
  • The Northern Territory — 23%.
  • The Australian Capital Territory — 28%.
     

About this data

Australia's estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is measured at the 30 June. At the state and territory level data is only available for Census years, with the latest being 2016.

State and territory by country of birth

The proportion of the population born overseas increased for all states or territories since 2011:

  • The Northern Territory had the largest increase, up from 18.9% to 22.6%.
  • Tasmania had the smallest, up from 12.5% to 13.1%.
     
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In 2016, those born in England (just over 1 million people) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents. The New Zealand born (568,000 people) were in second place while the Chinese born (558,000) were in third place. At the state and territory level the ranking of countries varies to the national level and that of the other states and territories.

The largest group of overseas-born residents for each state and territory in 2016 was as follows:

  • New South Wales — China (256,000 people)
  • Victoria — England (193,000)
  • Queensland — New Zealand (220,000)
  • South Australia — England (104,000)
  • Western Australia — England (214,000)
  • Tasmania — England (20,000)
  • Northern Territory — Philippines (7,000)
  • Australian Capital Territory — England (13,000).
     
Table 2.2 Estimated resident population, top 20 countries of birth(a) by state and territory(b), 30 June 2016
NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACTAust.(c)
'000'000'000'000'000'000'000'000'000
Australia5406.44280.63705.11294.01660.6449.7190.3289.617278.8
Overseas-born
England250.7192.7200.4103.7213.920.56.713.31002.1
New Zealand127.9102.7219.913.887.45.45.65.0568.2
China(d)256.0176.651.626.830.03.31.411.9557.7
India153.8182.853.129.053.42.14.210.9489.4
Philippines94.156.043.113.333.41.87.04.0252.7
Vietnam92.989.921.815.717.60.41.23.6243.2
Italy56.079.114.820.222.01.00.62.1195.8
South Africa47.730.344.77.145.51.71.12.1180.5
Malaysia34.955.316.48.432.31.60.82.6152.9
Scotland33.130.325.213.330.42.60.92.0137.8
Sri Lanka32.663.211.14.28.90.41.03.1124.5
Germany33.730.023.111.212.82.41.22.5116.7
Greece36.057.04.010.12.80.61.81.2113.4
Korea, South58.016.921.04.17.90.70.52.5111.6
USA36.924.320.95.211.52.01.73.3105.7
Hong Kong47.324.412.24.07.00.50.41.897.6
Lebanon68.419.91.71.81.30.10.10.593.7
Ireland28.218.213.33.721.60.81.40.988.0
Indonesia34.119.27.92.312.50.41.31.479.0
Netherlands18.922.215.87.210.42.50.51.178.7
Total overseas-born2326.41892.51140.0418.8895.467.955.4113.56912.1
Total7732.96173.24845.21712.82556.0517.5245.7403.124190.9
  1. The top 20 countries of birth are at the Australia level for 2016.
  2. Country of birth is available at the state and territory level in Census years only.
  3. Includes Other Territories. See paragraphs 63-64 of the Methodology page.
  4. Excludes SARs and Taiwan.

Net overseas migration

Key statistics

Overseas migration to and from Australia in 2018, resulted in a net increase to Australia's population of 237,200 people:

  • There were 526,300 migrant arrivals which was an annual decrease for the first time since 2014
  • There were 289,000 migrant departures which is the highest number on record
  • 327,300 of the migrant arrivals were on temporary visas and 87,900 were on permanent visas.
     

About this data

Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration (migrant arrivals) to Australia and emigration (migrant departures) from Australia. The data presented here are annual, for years ending 30 June. For quarterly migration estimates see Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0).

Net overseas migration — Australia

While exhibiting a pattern of variability over time, net overseas migration has remained above 180,000 people since 2006. After two consecutive years of increases, in 2018 there was a decrease as shown in Graph 3.1.

In the year ending 30 June 2018 there was:

  • a net gain from overseas migration of 237,200 people. This was 10% fewer than in 2017 (26,100 people)
  • the second largest decrease in net overseas migration since 2010.


The decrease in net migration for 2018 was comprised of a decrease in migrant arrivals and an increase in migrant departures.

There were:

  • 526,300 migrant arrivals, which was 13,900 fewer than during 2017 and a fall for the first time since 2014.
  • 289,000 migrant departures, which was 12,200 more than during 2017.
     
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  1. Estimates from December quarter 2017 onwards are preliminary - see paragraph 9 of the Methodology page.

Source: Australian Historical Population Statistics (cat. no. 3105.0.65.001)
 

Net overseas migration — states and territories

The three largest states, New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland, continued to account for the largest contributions to net overseas migration nationally in the year ending 30 June 2018. Australia's 10% decrease in migration during the year was also experienced by the three largest states and the Northern Territory.

The net overseas migration estimates and change from one year earlier for each state and territory were:

  • New South Wales 89,800 people (with a decrease of -15,700)
  • Victoria 85,100 (decrease of -6,200)
  • Queensland 28,700 (decrease of -5,400)
  • South Australia 12,700 (increase of 500)
  • Western Australia 12,800 (increase of 800)
  • Tasmania 2,600 (increase of 200)
  • Northern Territory 800 (decrease of -1,000)
  • Australian Capital Territory 4,800 (increase of 600).
     

When comparing migrant arrivals and migrant departures in 2017-18 to 2016-17:

  • Victoria recorded the largest increase in migrant arrivals of 1,100 people
  • New South Wales recorded the largest decrease in migrant arrivals of -8,600 people
  • Victoria recorded the largest increase in migrant departures of 7,300 people
  • Western Australia recorded the largest decrease in migrant departures of -4,600 people.
     
Table 3.2 Net overseas migration - state and territory - year to 30 June 2018(a)
State or territoryMigrant arrivals (no.)Migrant arrivals (%)Migrant departures (no.)Migrant departures (%)Net Overseas Migration (no.)Net Overseas Migration (%)
NSW189,69536.099,88234.68981337.9
Vic.160,70430.575,65126.28505335.9
Qld85,79216.357,12519.82866712.1
SA24,2534.611,5784.0126755.3
WA44,8998.532,08811.1128105.4
Tas.4,9850.92,4060.825791.1
NT4,9750.94,1291.48460.4
ACT10,9202.16,1252.147952.0
Australia(b)526,271100.0289,047100.0237224100.0
  1. Estimates from December quarter 2017 onwards are preliminary - see paragraph 9 of the Methodology page.
  2. Includes Other Territories.
     

Net overseas migration by visa groupings and Australian citizens

Temporary visa holders were the majority of migrant arrivals (62%) and migrant departures (49%) in the year ending 30 June 2018.

  • There were 327,300 migrant arrivals on temporary visas including nearly 159,000 international students (30% of all migrant arrivals)
  • Arrivals on temporary work skilled visas decreased from a year ago by 19% to 26,600 people
  • Migrant departures on temporary visas increased by 8% to 141,400 people.


For permanent visa holders in 2018, migrant arrivals declined while migrant departures increased from one year earlier.

  • 17% of all migrant arrivals were permanent visa holders
  • Permanent visa holders arriving decreased from a year ago to 87,900 people (down 17%)
  • Permanent visa holders departing increased from a year ago to 21,200 people (up 3%)
  • 7% of all migrant departures were permanent visa holders.


For Australian and New Zealand citizens (who do not require a visa for migration to Australia), in the year ending 30 June 2018:

  • 30,400 New Zealand citizens moved to Australia to live, however in the same year, 23,400 left Australia to live overseas
  • 76,500 Australian citizens returned to Australia after living overseas but in the same year 90,600 decided to move overseas to live.
     
Table 3.3 Net overseas migration by major grouping and visa(a) - Australia - year to 30 June 2018(b)
Major groupings and visaMigrant arrivals (no.)Migrant arrivals (%)Migrant departures (no.)Migrant departures (%)
Temporary visas
Vocational education and training sector18,7113.614,6505.1
Higher education sector106,22820.231,13410.8
Student other33,8296.48,8493.1
Temporary work skilled (subclass 457)26,6125.115,0955.2
Visitor(c)78,69915.020,5647.1
Working holiday49,7039.422,3537.7
Other temporary visas13,5562.628,7149.9
Total temporary visas327,33762.2141,35948.9
Permanent Visas
Family26,4385.05,7532.0
Skill43,1158.28,0412.8
Special eligibility and humanitarian12,1042.31510.1
Other permanent visas6,1941.27,2232.5
Total permanent visas87,85016.721,1687.3
New Zealand citizen (subclass 444)30,3555.823,3978.1
Australian citizen (no visa)76,50314.590,61531.3
Other(d)4,2270.812,5084.3
Total526,271100.0289,047100.0
  1. Represents the number of visas based on the visa type at the time of a traveller's specific movement. It is this specific movement that has been used to calculate net overseas migration. Therefore the number of visas in this table should not be confused with information on the number of visas granted by Home Affairs.
  2. Estimates from December quarter 2017 onwards are preliminary - see paragraph 9 of the Methodology page.
  3. Visitor visas include tourists, business visitors, medical treatment and other.
  4. Includes residents returning (i.e. non Australian citizens who have a permanent resident visa) and visa unknown.
     

Net overseas migration by country of birth and age

In the year ending 30 June 2018, people aged 20 to 24 years made up the largest proportion of migrant arrivals, while those aged 25 to 29 made up the largest proportion of migrant departures. The proportion of overseas-born migrants is much higher than Australian-born migrants for both arrivals and departures for almost all age groups. This is mainly due to the ebb and flow of temporary migration into and out of the country. The exception to this is migrant departures for the 0 to 4 year old age group, where almost four fifths were Australian born.

  • The 20 to 24 age group had the highest proportion of migrant arrivals with 21% of all migrant arrivals. Of this age group 95% were born overseas.
  • The 25 to 29 age group had the highest proportion of migrant departures with 20% of all migrant departures. Of this age group 83% were born overseas.
     
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  1. Australian-born and overseas-born persons as a proportion of Australia's total annual migration for the year to 30 June 2018.
  2. Estimates from December quarter 2017 onwards are preliminary - see paragraph 9 of the Methodology page.
     

Migrant arrivals by region of birth

The regions of the world where Australia's incoming migrants are born can change considerably over time. The five years to 30 June 2018 has seen such changes, with a shift away from Europe and Oceania towards the regions of Asia and to some degree the Americas. Oceania, previously the highest birthplace for migrant arrivals in 2013, has been surpassed by North-east Asia in 2018. Migrant arrivals from South and Central Asia are now higher than Oceania, North-west Europe and South-East Asia.

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  1. Estimates from December quarter 2017 onwards are preliminary - see paragraph 9 of the Methodology page.

Net interstate migration

Key statistics

During 2017-18, there were 392,700 people who moved interstate, an increase of 4.3% from the number of people who moved interstate during the previous year.

  • Queensland had the highest net gain from interstate migration of 24,700 people
  • New South Wales had the highest net loss from interstate migration of 21,700 people.
     

About this data

Net interstate migration (NIM) is the net gain or loss of population through the movement of people from one state or territory of usual residence to another. The data presented here are annual, for years ending 30 June. For quarterly migration estimates see Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0)

Interstate migration and population change

In the year ended 30 June 2018, there was a net gain from interstate migration which contributed to population growth for:

  • Queensland — (24,700 people)
  • Victoria — (14,300)
  • Tasmania — (2,400)
  • Australian Capital Territory — (600).
     

In the year ended 30 June 2018, there was a net loss from interstate migration which contributed to population loss for:

  • New South Wales — (-21,700 people)
  • Western Australia — (-11,300)
  • South Australia — (-5,200)
  • Northern Territory — (-3,800).
     
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  1. Estimates for 2017-18 are preliminary - see paragraph 9 of the Methodology page.
     

10 years of interstate migration and population change

In some states and territories consistent long-term patterns of net gains or net losses from interstate migration have been established whereas other, mainly smaller states, experienced fluctuating results through the years

Over the 10 years to June 2018, interstate migration contributed to population growth for:

  • Queensland, with consecutive net gains, had the highest average annual gain of 11,600 people, however the gain for 2018 was the highest in the last 10 years
  • Victoria, also with consecutive net gains, had an average annual gain of 8,900 people
  • Australian Capital Territory which had a modest average annual gain of 400 people
  • Tasmania which also had a modest average annual gain of 300 people, however the net gain for 2018 was the highest in the last 10 years.


Over the 10 years to June 2018, interstate migration contributed to population loss for:

  • New South Wales, with consecutive net losses, had the highest average annual loss of -13,600 people, however the loss for 2018 was the highest in the last 10 years
  • South Australia, also with consecutive net losses, had an average annual loss of -4,500 people
  • Northern Territory which had an average annual loss of -1,700 people, however the net loss for 2018 was the highest in the last 10 years
  • Western Australia which had an average annual loss of -1,300 people, but recoded net gains for the first 5 years until 2012-13.
     
4.2 Net interstate migration(a) - 2008-09 to 2017-18
NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACT
2008-09-18,6671,52314,702-4,4025,0121,063934-309
2009-10-9,4583,3146,172-2,7092,119664-661427
2010-11-13,4963,5346,795-2,6147,033-47-2,5491,354
2011-12-18,1152,41711,782-3,2208,609-1,925-6911,145
2012-13-14,6456,4208,874-4,7615,676-1,286-481202
2013-14-6,7519,7396,294-3,890-1,724-435-2,421-812
2014-15-6,77611,0796,861-4,570-4,278127-2,341-103
2015-16-11,53917,63911,986-7,212-10,010760-2,029383
2016-17-15,16118,19317,795-6,778-13,9341,522-2,8671,230
2017-18-21,67214,31624,698-5,151-11,3002,382-3,831558
Annual average-13,6288,81711,596-4,531-1,280283-1,694408
  1. Estimates from 2016-17 onwards are preliminary - see paragraph 9 of the Methodology page.

Regional overseas migration

Regional overseas migration is the movement of people to or from Australia's regions through immigration or emigration. Net regional overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through this movement.

This commentary analyses regional overseas migration estimates for 2017-18 as released in Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017-18 (cat. no. 3218.0). It discusses data at the Greater Capital City Statistical Area and Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4) levels, as defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard.

Capital cities

All capital cities recorded net gains from overseas migration. 

  • Melbourne had the largest net gain (78,000), followed by Sydney (77,100) and Brisbane (16,600). 
  • Darwin had the smallest net gain with 640 people, followed by Hobart (1,500) and the Australian Capital Territory (4,800).
     
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Source: Regional Population Growth, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3218.0)
 

Other regions

Sydney and Melbourne contained the ten SA4s with the highest net gains through regional overseas migration in 2017-18. 

  • Melbourne - Inner had the largest net gain of all (18,200), followed by Melbourne - South East (15,300). 
  • In Sydney, the SA4s with the largest net gain were Sydney - Inner South West (12,300) and Sydney - Parramatta (12,100).
     

In contrast, the SA4s with the smallest net gains from overseas migration were almost all outside of the capital cities, mostly covering rural and remote regions of Australia. These included:

  • South East in Tasmania (110 people)
  • Barossa - Yorke - Mid North in South Australia (160)
  • Queensland - Outback (160)
     

4.2 Highest and lowest net overseas migration gains, SA4 - 2017-18

  ArrivalsDeparturesNet
SA4 no.no.no.
Highest net migration gains
Melbourne - Inner 
44 845
26 604
18 241
Melbourne - South East 
26 469
11 126
15 343
Melbourne - West 
20 185
7 698
12 487
Sydney - Inner South West 
21 693
9 409
12 284
Sydney - Parramatta 
21 883
9 775
12 108
Lowest net migration gains
South East (Tasmania) 
186
80
106
Barossa - Yorke - Mid North (South Australia) 
275
118
157
Queensland - Outback 
504
340
164
South Australia - Outback 
312
133
179
Northern Territory - Outback 
1 183
976
207

Regional internal migration

Regional internal migration is the movement of people from one region to another within Australia (both interstate and intrastate). Net regional internal migration is the net gain or loss of population through this movement.

This commentary analyses regional internal migration estimates for 2017-18 as released in Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017-18 (cat. no. 3218.0). It discusses data at the Greater Capital City Statistical Area and Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4) levels, as defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard.

Capital cities

Brisbane had the highest net internal migration gain of all capital cities (16,000 people) with most arrivals coming from:  

  • Rest of Queensland (44,000)
  • Sydney (11,700) 
  • Rest of New South Wales (11,000)
     

Melbourne (5,700) and Hobart (1,300) had the next highest net internal migration gains. 

Sydney had the highest net loss of all capitals (-27,300 people). Most people departed Sydney for: 

  • Rest of New South Wales (50,200)
  • Melbourne (15,000)
  • Rest of Queensland (13,200)
     

The capital cities with the next highest net loss were Perth (-5,800) and Adelaide (-5,100). 

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Source: Regional Population Growth, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3218.0)
 

Other regions

Gold Coast had the highest net migration gain of all SA4s (7,700 people) with most net gains to the Gold Coast coming from the adjoining SA4s of:

  • Logan - Beaudesert (3,100 people) in Queensland
  • Richmond - Tweed (2,300) in New South Wales
     

Other SA4s with relatively high net gains included Queensland's Sunshine Coast (6,900 people) and Melbourne - West (6,000), which encompasses some of Melbourne's largest growing suburbs such as Tarneit, Truganina and Rockbank – Mount Cottrell.

Sydney - Inner South West had the highest net migration loss of all SA4s (-8,700 people). In net terms this area lost most people to the neighbouring Sydney SA4s of:

  •  South West (-4,700 people)
  • Parramatta (-3,800) 
  • Outer South West (-3,000)
     

Other SA4s with relatively high net migration losses included Sydney - Parramatta (-6,400), Sydney - Eastern Suburbs (-5,200 people) and Sydney - Inner West (-4,200).

5.2 Highest net internal migration gains and losses, SA4s - 2017-18

 ArrivalsDeparturesNet
SA4no.no.no.
Highest net migration gains
Gold Coast
34 441
26 762
7 679
Sunshine Coast
24 985
18 127
6 858
Melbourne - West
39 919
33 940
5 979
Geelong
15 535
11 028
4 507
Ipswich
25 374
21 058
4 316
Highest net migration losses
Sydney - Inner South West
25 288
33 947
-8 659
Sydney - Parramatta
29 996
36 358
-6 362
Sydney - Eastern Suburbs
14 903
20 095
-5 192
Sydney - Inner West
20 389
24 580
-4 191
Perth - South East
24 393
28 030
-3 637

Data downloads

Net overseas migration, arrivals and departures, state/territory, major groupings and visa - calendar years, 2004 to 2018

Net overseas migration, arrivals and departures, state/territory, major groupings and visa - financial years, 2004-05 to 2017-18


Overseas migration estimates are final up to September quarter 2017 and preliminary from December quarter 2017. See paragraph 9 of the Methodology page for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' methodology and provides data from 2004 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 24 to 34 of the Methodology page.

For further information, see paragraphs 27 to 35 of the Methodology page.

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

The visa category information in this data cube represents the number of visas based on the visa type at the time of a traveller's specific movement. It is this specific movement that has been used to calculate NOM. Therefore, the number of visas in this data cube should not be confused with information on the number of visas granted by the Department of Home Affairs.

Over time, new visas created by Home Affairs are added to the visa hierarchy while the use of other visas may expire. Care should be taken in the analysis of overseas migration by visa over time.

Net overseas migration by country of birth, state/territory by reference period - financial years, 2004-05 to 2017-18


Overseas migration estimates are final for 2016-17 and preliminary for 2017-18. Preliminary estimates are based on outputs from a propensity model and data is therefore an aggregate rather than a true count of each individual. Please take care when using the variables of preliminary estimates at this level of granularity. See paragraph 9 of the Methodology page for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' Methodology and provides data from 2004-05 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 24 to 34 of the Methodology page.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

Net overseas migration by country of birth, reference period by state/territory - financial years, 2004-05 to 2017-18


Overseas migration estimates are final for 2016-17 and preliminary for 2017-18. Preliminary estimates are based on outputs from a propensity model and data is therefore an aggregate rather than a true count of each individual. Please take care when using the variables of preliminary estimates at this level of granularity. See paragraph 9 of the Methodology page for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' methodology and provides data from 2004-05 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 24 to 34 of the Methodology page.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

Estimated resident population, country of birth - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2018


Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary for 2017 and 2018. It may differ to previously published data. See paragraph 9 of the Methodology page for further information.

The ABS has identified an unrealistically high number of deaths from 2012 to 2014 being attributed to persons born in Isle of Man. For the Australian population born in Isle of Man, this has resulted in an underestimate of ERP for the period 2012 to 2015.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

Estimated resident population, country of birth, state/territory by reference period - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2016 - Census years


Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006 and final rebased from 2006 to 2016. It may differ to previously published data. See paragraph 9 of the Methodology page for further information.

Estimated resident population (ERP), country of birth by state and territory are only available for Census years.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

Estimated resident population, country of birth, reference period by state/territory - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2016 - Census years


Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006 and final rebased from 2006 to 2016. It may differ to previously published data. See paragraph 9 of the Methodology page for further information.

Estimated resident population (ERP), country of birth by state and territory are only available for Census years.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

Estimated resident population, country of birth, median age - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2018


Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2017. It may differ to previously published data. See paragraph 9 of the Methodology page for further information.

The ABS has identified an unrealistically high number of deaths from 2012 to 2014 being attributed to persons born in Isle of Man. For the Australian population born in Isle of Man, this has resulted in an underestimate of ERP for the period 2012 to 2015.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

For any age distribution, the median age is that age which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half being younger than the value, and half being older than it. In this data cube, the median age is published for the total population, overseas-born population, each main region of birth and each selected country of birth. It has been calculated for those countries of birth with a population of 100 people or more.

Estimated resident population, country of birth, sex ratio - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2018


Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2017. It may differ to previously published data. See paragraph 9 of the Methodology page for further information.

The ABS has identified an unrealistically high number of deaths from 2012 to 2014 being attributed to persons born in Isle of Man. For the Australian population born in Isle of Man, this has resulted in an underestimate of ERP for the period 2012 to 2015.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. In this data cube, the sex ratio is published for the total population, overseas-born population, each main region of birth and each selected country of birth. It has been calculated for those countries of birth with a population of 100 persons or more.

History of changes

20/06/2019 - Net Interstate Migration and Net Overseas Migration estimates for calendar year 2018 have been added. Net Overseas Migration estimates for calendar year 2017 have been revised from preliminary to final.

03/04/2019 - Footnotes in the chapter Net Interstate Migration have been updated.