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Consumer Price Index, Australia

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of household inflation and includes statistics about price change for categories of household expenditure

Reference period
September Quarter 2019
Released
30/10/2019

Key statistics

  • The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose 0.5% this quarter.
  • Over the twelve months to the September 2019 the CPI rose 1.7%.
  • International holiday, travel and accommodation rose 6.1%.
  • Automotive fuel (-2.0%), fruit (-3.1%) and vegetables (-2.5%) all fell.

Main features

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  Jun Qtr 2019 to Sep Qtr 2019Sep Qtr 2018 to Sep Qtr 2019
Weighted average of eight capital cities% change% change
All groups CPI
0.5
1.7
Food and non-alcoholic beverages
0.4
2.3
Alcohol and tobacco
2.0
6.6
Clothing and footwear
1.5
1.5
Housing
0.3
0.4
Furnishings, household equipment and services
1.1
1.8
Health
-0.2
3.1
Transport
-0.3
0.7
Communication
-1.1
-4.1
Recreation and culture
1.5
1.7
Education
0.1
2.8
Insurance and financial services
0.2
0.5
CPI analytical series
 All groups CPI, seasonally adjusted
0.3
1.7
 Trimmed mean
0.4
1.6
 Weighted median
0.3
1.2
 
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Changes in this and future releases

The ABS has ceased publishing a PDF as part of the release of Consumer Price Index, Australia (cat. no. 6401.0) as of the June 2019 quarter. CPI data will be presented in HTML format only on the ABS website. Should you have any concerns regarding this transition, please contact the ABS via email on client.services@abs.gov.au.

Main contributors to change

CPI groups

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The discussion of the CPI groups below is ordered in terms of their absolute significance to the change in All groups index points for the quarter (see Tables 6 and 7). Unless otherwise stated, the analysis is in original terms.

Recreation and culture group (+1.5%)

  • The main contributor is a rise of 6.1% in international holiday, travel and accommodation as a result of increased prices for travel to Europe and America during their high tourist season.
  • Over the last twelve months the group rose 1.7%.
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose by 0.6% this quarter. The main contributor is international holiday, travel and accommodation (+2.2%).

Alcohol and tobacco group (+2.0%)

  • The main contributors are a rise of 3.4% in tobacco and a rise of 1.8% in wine. The rise in tobacco is due to a 12.5% increase in the federal excise tax and further increase based on the Average Weekly Ordinary Time Earnings (AWOTE) effective 1 September 2019.
  • Over the last twelve months the group rose 6.6%. The main contributor is tobacco (+15.1%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 2.0% this quarter. The main contributor is tobacco (+3.8%).

Furnishings, household equipment and services group (+1.1%)

  • The main contributors are a rise of 2.5% in child care and a rise of 2.4% in furniture. The rise in child care is due to higher fees increasing the out of pocket expenses for households.
  • Over the last twelve months the group rose 1.8%.
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 0.3% this quarter. The main contributors are child care (+1.4%) and furniture (+0.8%).

Housing group (+0.3%)

  • The main contributors to the rise in the housing group are property rates and charges (+2.5%), gas and other household fuels (+3.0%) and water and sewerage (+2.3%).
  • This is the lowest September quarter rise since 1998 and is due to subdued rises in utilities (+0.7%) and rents (+0.1%), while new dwelling purchased by owner-occupiers fell 0.2%.
  • September quarters typically observe annual price changes in property rates and charges. The modest rise in property rates and charges reflects rate caps in some capital cities and a lower inflationary environment.
  • The main partially offsetting contributor is a 0.7% fall in electricity. The introduction of the Default Market Offer (DMO) and Victorian Default Offer (VDO) to replace standing offers in the eastern capital cities contributed to the fall.
  • Over the last twelve months the group rose 0.4%.
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group fell 0.1% this quarter. The main contributor is electricity (-1.6%).

Food and non-alcoholic beverages group (+0.4%)

  • The main contributor is a rise of 0.6% in meals out and takeaway foods.
  • Adverse weather, particularly drought, is impacting on the prices of some food products with rises this quarter in meat and seafood (+1.7%), dairy and related products (+2.2%) and bread and cereal products (+1.3%).
  • The main partially offsetting contributor is a 2.9% fall in fruit and vegetables. Seasonal growing conditions led to increased supply of berries, citrus fruits, tomatoes and broccoli leading to lower prices.
  • Over the last twelve months the group rose 2.3%. The main contributors are lamb and goat (+14.3%) and beef and veal (+7.1%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 0.5% this quarter. The main contributors are meat and seafood (+1.7%) and meals out and takeaway foods (+0.6%).

Clothing and footwear group (+1.5%)

  • The depreciation of the Australian dollar is flowing through to higher prices for clothing and footwear this quarter. The main contributor is a rise of 1.4% in garments for women.
  • Over the last twelve months the group rose 1.5%. The main contributor is garments for women (+1.5%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.1% this quarter. The main contributor is garments for women (+1.3%).

Communication group (-1.1%)

  • The main contributor is a fall of 1.1% in telecommunication equipment and services.
  • Over the last twelve months, the group fell 4.1%.

Transport group (-0.3%)

  • The main contributor is a fall of 2.0% in automotive fuel as recent falls in world oil prices flow through to consumers. Automotive fuel fell in June (-4.8%), rose in July (+0.4%), fell in August (-0.9%) and rose in September (+2.7%).
  • The main partially offsetting contributors are a 1.2% rise in other services in respect of motor vehicles and 1.2% rise in urban transport fares. The commencement of the financial year saw rises for administered prices in some capital cities.
  • Over the last twelve months the group rose 0.7%. The main contributor is motor vehicles (+3.7%), while automotive fuel fell 3.9%.
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group fell 0.5% this quarter. The main contributor is automotive fuel (-2.0%).
     

The following graph shows the pattern of the average daily prices for unleaded petrol for the eight capital cities over the last fifteen months.

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Insurance and financial services group (+0.2%)

  • The main contributors are a rise of 0.5% in insurance and a 0.3% rise in other financial services. The rise in insurance is due to increases in house contents and house insurance.
  • Over the last twelve months the group rose 0.5%.
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the insurance and financial services group rose 0.2% this quarter.

Health group (-0.2%)

  • The main contributor is a fall of 1.0% in pharmaceutical products due to the cyclical effect of a greater proportion of consumers who qualify for subsidies under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), reducing their out-of-pocket expenses.
  • Over the last twelve months the group rose 3.1%. The main contributor is medical and hospital services (+3.8%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.0% this quarter. The main contributor is medical and hospital services (+1.3%).

Education group (+0.1%)

  • The main contributor is a rise of 0.3% in preschool and primary education.
  • Over the last twelve months the group rose 2.8%. The main contributors are secondary education (+4.2%) and preschool and primary education (+2.8%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 0.7% this quarter. The main contributor is secondary education (+1.0%).

International trade exposure - tradable and non-tradables

Tradables (+0.9% quarter, +1.2% annual):

  • Tradable goods component rose 0.3% due to wine (+1.8%), gas and other household fuels (+3.0%), furniture (+2.4%) and garments for women (+1.4%).
  • Tradable services component rose 5.8% due to international holiday, travel and accommodation (+6.1%).

Non-tradables (+0.4% quarter, +1.9% annual):

  • Non-tradable goods component rose 0.6% due to tobacco (+3.4%).
  • Non-tradable services component rose 0.3% due to property rates and charges (+2.5%).
     

In seasonally adjusted terms, the tradables component of the All groups CPI rose 0.3% and the non-tradables component rose 0.5%.

Seasonally adjusted analytical series

In the September 2019 quarter:

  • All groups CPI seasonally adjusted rose 0.3%. 
  • The trimmed mean rose 0.4%, following a rise of 0.4% in the June 2019 quarter. Over the twelve months to the September 2019 quarter, the trimmed mean rose 1.6%, following a rise of 1.6% over the twelve months to the June 2019 quarter.
  • The weighted median rose 0.3%, following a rise of 0.4% in the June 2019 quarter. Over the twelve months, the weighted median rose 1.2%, following a rise of 1.3% over the twelve months to the June 2019 quarter.
 OriginalSeasonally Adjusted
Jun Qtr 2019 to Sep Qtr 2019Jun Qtr 2019 to Sep Qtr 2019
%%
All groups CPI
0.5
0.3
Food and non-alcoholic beverages
0.4
0.5
Alcohol and tobacco
2.0
2.0
Clothing and footwear
1.5
1.1
Housing
0.3
-0.1
Furnishings, household equipment and services
1.1
0.3
Health
-0.2
1.0
Transport
-0.3
-0.5
Communication(a)
-1.1
-1.1
Recreation and culture
1.5
0.6
Education
0.1
0.7
Insurance and financial services
0.2
0.2
International trade exposure series
 Tradables
0.9
0.3
 Non-tradables
0.4
0.5
a. not seasonally adjusted
 

A detailed explanation of the seasonal adjustment of the All Groups CPI and calculation of the trimmed mean and weighted median measures is available in Information Paper: Seasonal Adjustment of Consumer Price Indexes, 2011 (cat. no. 6401.0.55.003) available on the ABS website. Revisions to the seasonally adjusted estimates can be the result of the application of concurrent seasonal adjustment, described in paragraph 15 of the Methodology page.

Capital cities comparison

All groups CPI

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The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose 0.5% this quarter in original terms and rose 0.3% in seasonally adjusted terms. Annually, the CPI rose 1.7%.

Main positive contributors

  • Recreation and culture (+1.5%) due to the peak tourist season in Europe and America which drove international holiday, travel and accommodation (+6.1%).
  • Alcohol and tobacco (+2.0%) driven by tobacco (+3.4%) due to the annual increase in the tobacco excise (12.5%) applied on 1 September.

Main negative contributors

  • Communication (-1.1%) driven by telecommunication equipment and services (-1.1%) due to increased use of mobile services.
  • Transport (-0.3%) due to a fall in automotive fuel (-2.0%) as recent falls in world oil prices flow through to consumers.

All groups CPI, all groups index numbers and percentage changes

 Index number(a)Percentage change
 Sep Qtr 2019Jun Qtr 2019 to Sep Qtr 2019Sep Qtr 2018 to Sep Qtr 2019
Sydney
116.5
0.5
1.6
Melbourne
115.9
0.5
1.7
Brisbane
115.5
0.6
1.9
Adelaide
114.5
0.7
1.9
Perth
112.6
0.5
1.6
Hobart
114.7
0.5
2.2
Darwin
111.3
0.3
0.5
Canberra
114.3
0.7
1.8
Weighted average of eight capital cities
115.4
0.5
1.7
a. Index reference period: 2011-12 = 100.0.
 

Main contributors by city:

Sydney (+0.5%)

  • International holiday, travel and accommodation (+6.9%)
  • Tobacco (+3.4%)
  • Wine (+2.6%).


The rise was partially offset by:

  • Automotive fuel (-2.2%)
  • New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers (-0.6%). The fall in new dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers is mainly driven by base price reductions due to weak market conditions.
  • Sports participation (-3.5%) due to the introduction of a second $100 Active Kids sports voucher for school aged children in New South Wales.

Melbourne (+0.5%)

  • International holiday, travel and accommodation (+5.5%)
  • Tobacco (+3.5%)
  • Gas and other household fuels (+3.5%) due to the seasonal switch to peak winter gas prices.


The rise was partially offset by:

  • Electricity (-4.1%) due to the introduction of the Victorian Default Offer from 1 July 2019.
  • Motor vehicles (-2.0%)
  • Automotive fuel (-1.8%).

Brisbane (+0.6%)

  • International holiday, travel and accommodation (+4.7%)
  • Tobacco (+3.2%)
  • Electricity (+2.6%) driven by the $50 asset ownership dividend that was applied to consumers' electricity bills last quarter.


The rise was partially offset by:

  • Automotive fuel (-2.6%)
  • Fruit (-2.7%).

Adelaide (+0.7%)

  • International holiday, travel and accommodation (+6.3%)
  • Tobacco (+3.4%)
  • Wine (+3.5%).


The rise was partially offset by:

  • Domestic holiday, travel and accommodation (-2.4%)
  • Insurance (-3.5%) due to the Compulsory Third Party insurance market being opened to competition on 1 July.
  • New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers (-0.7%).

Perth (+0.5%)

  • International holiday, travel and accommodation (+6.8%)
  • Tobacco (+3.5%)
  • Electricity (+1.7%).


The rise was partially offset by:

  • Automotive fuel (-2.6%)
  • Fruit (-6.5%).

Hobart (+0.5%)

  • New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers (+2.3%) due to a strong housing market.
  • International holiday, travel and accommodation (+6.2%)
  • Tobacco (+2.6%).
  • Hobart is the only capital city to record a rise in automotive fuel this quarter (+0.5%).


The rise was partially offset by:

  • Domestic holiday, travel and accommodation (-7.0%)
  • Vegetables (-2.5%).

Darwin (+0.3%)

  • Domestic holiday, travel and accommodation (+4.4%) due to increased demand during the peak tourist season this quarter.
  • Tobacco (+3.1%)
  • International holiday travel and accommodation (+4.6%).


The rise was partially offset by:

  • Rents (-1.8%); due to continued high vacancy rates
  • Other financial services (-3.2%) due to the introduction of the Territory home owner discount (THOD), which offers a discount on stamp duty when purchasing a dwelling for owner-occupier purposes from May 2019.
  • Sports participation (-9.0%) due to the biannual $100 sports voucher provided to school aged children in the Northern Territory.

Canberra (+0.7%)

  • International holiday, travel and accommodation (+6.5%)
  • Property rates and charges (+7.9%) due to reductions in stamp duty for property purchases being replaced by increases in general rates.
  • Domestic holiday, travel and accommodation (+3.2%).


The rise was partially offset by:

  • Other financial services (-7.6%) due to the introduction of the home buyer concession scheme.
  • Games, toys and hobbies (-3.6%)
  • Fruits (-3.1%).
     

Further analysis is available in the Main contributors to change commentary.

Use of price indexes in contracts

Price indexes published by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) provide summary measures of the movements in various categories of prices over time. They are published primarily for use in Government economic analysis. Price indexes are also often used in contracts by businesses and government to adjust payments and/or charges to take account of changes in categories of prices (Indexation Clauses).

Use of Price Indexes in Contracts that sets out a range of issues that should be taken into account by parties considering including an Indexation Clause in a contract using an ABS published price index.

Frequently asked questions

The Frequently Asked Questions page that has answers to a number of common questions to do with price indexes and the Consumer Price Index, in particular.

Article archive

CPI feature articles

Selected tables - capital cities

1 All groups CPI, index numbers(a)

PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2015-16
108.9
108.2
108.5
107.2
108.2
106.3
108.5
106.1
108.3
2016-17
111.1
110.2
110.4
108.9
108.9
108.2
108.7
108.1
110.2
2017-18
113.4
112.7
112.3
111.3
109.9
110.5
109.7
110.7
112.3
2018-19
115.2
114.7
114.1
113.1
111.3
113.3
110.7
113.0
114.1
2015         
 September
108.6
107.6
108.1
107.1
108.1
105.7
108.7
105.8
108.0
 December
108.9
108.3
108.5
107.3
108.6
106.6
109.0
106.0
108.4
2016         
 March
108.7
108.2
108.5
107.0
107.9
106.4
108.0
106.2
108.2
 June
109.3
108.6
109.0
107.5
108.2
106.4
108.3
106.4
108.6
 September
110.4
109.1
109.7
108.4
108.6
107.1
108.7
107.3
109.4
 December
110.9
109.9
110.2
108.7
109.0
108.0
108.6
107.9
110.0
2017         
 March
111.3
110.9
110.5
109.1
109.0
108.9
108.5
108.6
110.5
 June
111.7
111.0
111.0
109.2
109.0
108.9
108.8
108.6
110.7
 September
112.5
111.5
111.4
110.4
109.5
109.2
109.4
109.6
111.4
 December
113.3
112.3
112.3
111.2
109.9
110.3
109.7
110.3
112.1
2018         
 March
113.6
113.3
112.4
111.6
110.0
111.1
109.7
111.2
112.6
 June
114.0
113.8
112.9
112.1
110.2
111.5
110.1
111.6
113.0
 September
114.7
114.0
113.4
112.4
110.8
112.2
110.8
112.3
113.5
 December
115.2
114.6
114.0
113.0
111.3
113.6
111.0
113.1
114.1
2019         
 March
115.1
114.7
114.1
113.1
111.2
113.4
110.1
113.2
114.1
 June
115.9
115.3
114.8
113.7
112.0
114.1
111.0
113.5
114.8
 September
116.5
115.9
115.5
114.5
112.6
114.7
111.3
114.3
115.4
a. Unless otherwise specified, reference period of each index: 2011-12 = 100.0.

2 All groups CPI, percentage changes

PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
Percentage Change (from Previous Financial Year)
2015-16
1.5
1.6
1.6
0.8
0.9
1.3
0.1
0.8
1.4
2016-17
2.0
1.8
1.8
1.6
0.6
1.8
0.2
1.9
1.8
2017-18
2.1
2.3
1.7
2.2
0.9
2.1
0.9
2.4
1.9
2018-19
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.6
1.3
2.5
0.9
2.1
1.6
Percentage Change (from Corresponding Quarter of Previous Year)
2015         
 September
1.9
1.4
1.5
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.4
0.6
1.5
 December
2.0
1.9
1.7
1.0
1.5
1.8
0.5
0.7
1.7
2016         
 March
1.3
1.7
1.7
0.7
0.7
1.3
-0.3
1.0
1.3
 June
0.9
1.4
1.5
0.7
0.5
1.2
0.0
0.8
1.0
 September
1.7
1.4
1.5
1.2
0.5
1.3
0.0
1.4
1.3
 December
1.8
1.5
1.6
1.3
0.4
1.3
-0.4
1.8
1.5
2017         
 March
2.4
2.5
1.8
2.0
1.0
2.3
0.5
2.3
2.1
 June
2.2
2.2
1.8
1.6
0.7
2.3
0.5
2.1
1.9
 September
1.9
2.2
1.5
1.8
0.8
2.0
0.6
2.1
1.8
 December
2.2
2.2
1.9
2.3
0.8
2.1
1.0
2.2
1.9
2018         
 March
2.1
2.2
1.7
2.3
0.9
2.0
1.1
2.4
1.9
 June
2.1
2.5
1.7
2.7
1.1
2.4
1.2
2.8
2.1
 September
2.0
2.2
1.8
1.8
1.2
2.7
1.3
2.5
1.9
 December
1.7
2.0
1.5
1.6
1.3
3.0
1.2
2.5
1.8
2019         
 March
1.3
1.2
1.5
1.3
1.1
2.1
0.4
1.8
1.3
 June
1.7
1.3
1.7
1.4
1.6
2.3
0.8
1.7
1.6
 September
1.6
1.7
1.9
1.9
1.6
2.2
0.5
1.8
1.7
Percentage Change (From Previous quarter)
2015         
 September
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.5
 December
0.3
0.7
0.4
0.2
0.5
0.9
0.3
0.2
0.4
2016         
 March
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
-0.3
-0.6
-0.2
-0.9
0.2
-0.2
 June
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.2
0.4
 September
1.0
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.4
0.7
0.4
0.8
0.7
 December
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.3
0.4
0.8
-0.1
0.6
0.5
2017         
 March
0.4
0.9
0.3
0.4
0.0
0.8
-0.1
0.6
0.5
 June
0.4
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.2
 September
0.7
0.5
0.4
1.1
0.5
0.3
0.6
0.9
0.6
 December
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.4
1.0
0.3
0.6
0.6
2018         
 March
0.3
0.9
0.1
0.4
0.1
0.7
0.0
0.8
0.4
 June
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
 September
0.6
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.4
 December
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.2
0.2
0.7
0.5
2019         
 March
-0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
-0.1
-0.2
-0.8
0.1
0.0
 June
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.8
0.3
0.6
 September
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.7
0.5

3 Longer term series: all groups CPI, weighted average of eight capital cities, index numbers

 31 March30 June30 September31 December
no.no.no.no.
1985
37.9
38.8
39.7
40.5
1986
41.4
42.1
43.2
44.4
1987
45.3
46.0
46.8
47.6
1988
48.4
49.3
50.2
51.2
1989
51.7
53.0
54.2
55.2
1990
56.2
57.1
57.5
59.0
1991
58.9
59.0
59.3
59.9
1992
59.9
59.7
59.8
60.1
1993
60.6
60.8
61.1
61.2
1994
61.5
61.9
62.3
62.8
1995
63.8
64.7
65.5
66.0
1996
66.2
66.7
66.9
67.0
1997
67.1
66.9
66.6
66.8
1998
67.0
67.4
67.5
67.8
1999
67.8
68.1
68.7
69.1
2000
69.7
70.2
72.9
73.1
2001
73.9
74.5
74.7
75.4
2002
76.1
76.6
77.1
77.6
2003
78.6
78.6
79.1
79.5
2004
80.2
80.6
80.9
81.5
2005
82.1
82.6
83.4
83.8
2006
84.5
85.9
86.7
86.6
2007
86.6
87.7
88.3
89.1
2008
90.3
91.6
92.7
92.4
2009
92.5
92.9
93.8
94.3
2010
95.2
95.8
96.5
96.9
2011
98.3
99.2
99.8
99.8
2012
99.9
100.4
101.8
102.0
2013
102.4
102.8
104.0
104.8
2014
105.4
105.9
106.4
106.6
2015
106.8
107.5
108.0
108.4
2016
108.2
108.6
109.4
110.0
2017
110.5
110.7
111.4
112.1
2018
112.6
113.0
113.5
114.1
2019
114.1
114.8
115.4
 
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)

Data downloads

Tables 1 and 2. CPI - all groups, index numbers and percentage changes

Tables 3 and 4. CPI - groups, weighted average of eight capital cities, index numbers and percentage changes

Table 5. CPI - groups, index numbers by capital city

Table 6. CPI - group, sub-group and expenditure class contribution to change in all groups indexes, by capital city

Table 7. CPI - group, sub-group and expenditure class, weighted average of eight capital cities

Table 8. CPI - analytical series, weighted average of eight capital cities

Table 9. CPI - group, sub-group and expenditure class, index numbers by capital city

Table 10. CPI - group, sub-group and expenditure class, percentage change from corresponding quarter of previous year by capital city

Table 11. CPI - group, sub-group and expenditure class, percentage change from previous quarter by capital city

Table 12. CPI - group, sub-group and expenditure class, points contribution, by capital city

Table 13. CPI - group, expenditure class and selected analytical series index numbers, seasonally adjusted, weighted average of eight capital cities

Table 14. CPI - expenditure class, combined seasonal adjustment factors, weighted average of eight capital cities