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Latest release

Experimental Environmental-Economic Accounts for the Great Barrier Reef methodology

Reference period
2017
Released
21/08/2017
Next release Unknown
First release

Explanatory notes

1 This publication should be considered experimental, as improvements to methods and new data sources continue to become available. The ABS will be seeking input from key stakeholders with the intention of addressing issues and concerns in future updates.

System of environmental-economic accounting framework

2 Detailed explanations of the SEEA and Ecosystems Services are available in Information Paper: An Experimental Ecosystem Account for the Great Barrier Reef Region, 2015 (cat. no. 4680.0.55.001). The explanatory notes for this publication contain descriptions and references for the theory and data that have contributed to this publication.

3 The ABS is seeking feedback on this publication from stakeholders on how the environmental-economic accounts for a region might be used by policy and research agencies and on any technical issues where readers have expertise. Feedback is also sought on the presentation of the accounts and the ease of use.

Scope

4 This publication brings together a range of data related to ecosystem conditions, ecosystem assets and services in the following sections:

  • Summary of findings
  • Marine extent and condition
  • Terrestrial extent and condition
  • Biodiversity
  • Employment Profile
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
  • Expenditure on Environmental Goods and Services
  • Tourism
  • Fishing and Aquaculture
  • Agriculture and Forestry
  • Water
  • Carbon
  • Regulating ecosystem services
  • Feature Article - Fitzroy.
     

Coverage and geography

5 This release presents an experimental ecosystem account for the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Region in Queensland and the associated Natural Resource Management (NRM) regions which lie adjacent to and drain into the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. The NRM regions are: Burdekin, Burnett Mary, Fitzroy, Mackay Whitsunday, Wet Tropics and Cape York. Note that the Cape York NRM region was divided and only the basins draining eastwards were considered formally in scope, although some data sources unavoidably cover the whole of the Cape York NRM region. Figure 1 shows a map of the study region.

Figure 1 - Study region - Great Barrier Reef region

Figure 1: Study region - Great Barrier Reef region

Figure 1 - Study region - Great Barrier Reef region

Image of a map of Australia showing the study region - Great Barrier Reef region.

The map depicts the Great Barrier Reef terrestrial region and the Great Barrier Reef marine region.

Source: NRM terrestrial regions - Department of Environment, Cape York region and NRM marine regions - Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Copyright Commonwealth of Australia, 2015

Spatial boundaries

6 The choice of spatial boundaries is a key consideration in ecosystem accounting. For the terrestrial areas of the study region, Natural Resource Management (NRM) regions and Australian Statistical Standard Geography (ASGS) are used. The NRM regions are administrative regions primarily used to report on the Australian Government's Caring for our Country investments but are also used for environmental and agricultural reporting. They are based on catchments or bioregions. The boundaries of NRM regions are managed by the Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Energy. NRM regions change occasionally as States and Territories revise their boundaries.

7 For the marine areas the choice was less clear and experience with accounting for marine systems is more limited than for terrestrial systems. For the marine areas of the Great Barrier Reef, data are collected or presented according to a number of different spatial boundaries. The boundaries identified include:

  • Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) assessment areas and management sectors;
  • Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Fishery Logbook Grid;
  • Reef and Non-Reef Bioregions of the GBR Region;
  • Terrestrial NRM boundary extensions across the marine area; and
  • In-shore, Mid-shelf and Outer Reef areas of Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) Long Term Monitoring Program.
     

8 The boundaries used for aggregation and output of data in this publication for the marine area are the GBRMPA management sectors and terrestrial NRM region boundary extensions across the marine area, as shown in Figures 2 and 3 below.

Figure 2 - Terrestrial and marine regions of the Great Barrier Reef region

Figure 2: Terrestrial and marine regions of the Great Barrier Reef region

Figure 2 - Terrestrial and marine regions of the Great Barrier Reef region

Image of a map showing the Terrestrial and marine regions of the Great Barrier Reef region.

The map depicts the Great Barrier Reef terrestrial region, Great Barrier Reef marine region and outside area of interest along the coastline of Australia containing Cape York, Wet Tropics, Burdekin, Mackay Whitsunday, Fitzroy and Burnett Mary.

Source: NRM terrestrial regions - Department of Environment, Cape York region and NRM marine regions - Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Copyright Commonwealth of Australia, 2015

Figure 3 - Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority management sectors

Figure 3: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority management sectors

Figure 3 - Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority management sectors

Image of a map showing the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority management sectors.

The map depicts the Great Barrier Reef terrestrial region, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority management sectors and Outside area of interest along the Australian coastline that contains Cape York, Wet Tropics, Burdekin, Mackay Whitsunday, Fitzroy and Burnett Mary.

9 For the purpose of a number of sections, an ASGS approximation of the GBR Catchment Area is used. The ASGS approximation of the GBR Region is formed with an amalgamation of the following Natural Resource Management Regions (NRMRs): Burnett Mary, Cape York, Fitzroy, Burdekin, Mackay Whitsunday and Wet Tropics (Figure 4). Users should note that the extent of the GBR Region has been created using whole NRMR boundaries to maintain the integrity and consistency of the ABS Statistical Geography - ASGS. These boundaries vary from the boundaries of Natural Resource Management region boundaries (compare Figures 2 and 3 with Figure 4).

10 The ASGS approximation of the GBR Region includes the entire Cape York NRMR, which is atypical in GBR-related publications as Cape York's westward-draining basins do not drain directly into the Reef marine ecosystem. The Cape York NRMR has a very small population and low economic activity relative to other GBR NRMRs, which hampers the availability and quality of economic and social data sources, and impacts on detail preservation due to confidentiality requirements. Many sections in this publication provide data based on ASGS approximation of NRMR boundaries, including:

  • Land Accounts and rainfall information in Terrestrial Extent and Condition
  • Employment and Business Profile
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
  • Tourism
  • Agriculture and Forestry
  • Water.
     

Figure 4 - Natural Resource Management Regions (NRMRs), GBR region

Figure 4: Natural Resource Management Regions (NRMRs), GBR region

Figure 4 - Natural Resource Management Regions (NRMRs), GBR region

Image of a map showing the Natural Resource Management Regions (NRMRs), GBR region.

The map depicts the Natural Resource Management Regions (NRMRs) in Queensland, the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region and Outside of study area.

The Natural Resource Management Regions (NRMRs) in Queensland contains Cape York, Cooperative Management Area, Northern Gulf, Southern Gulf, Wet Tropics, Burdekin, Mackay Whitsundaym Desert Channels, Fitzroy, South West Queensland, Border Rivers Maranoa-Balonne, Burnett May, Condamine and South East Queensland.

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region contains Cape York, Wet Tropics, Burdekin, Mackay Whitsunday, Fitzroy and Burnett Mary.

11 National level data from the ABS Australian System of National Accounts (cat. no. 5204.0) and Tourism Satellite Account (cat. no. 5249.0) have been broken down to a regional level using proxy data items for regional activity in tourism and agriculture.

12 For food provisioning services, the proxy item for splitting national data to NRM regions is the Gross Value of Agricultural Production. This has been derived from publications based on the ABS Agricultural Survey and Agricultural Census (see cat. nos. 7111.0 and 7501.0).

13 For cultural services from tourism, small area information on tourist expenditure was derived from the Tourism Research Australia collections: the International Visitors Survey (IVS) and National Visitors Survey (NVS). These are published by Tourism Research Australia as regional profiles using a tourism region geography which is different from NRM regions. However, the large sample size of these collections supports estimates at a smaller level which were aggregated to the required output boundaries.


14 The use of proxies means estimates are built on an assumption that the regional distribution of the proxy data item is a suitable indicator for the distribution of related economic variables. This method treats the proportional relationships between different factors of production as uniform across the country.

Classifications

15 The following classifications and manuals were used in this publication:

    ABS sources:

    Marine extent and condition

    Data sources

    • Long-Term Monitoring Program (LMTP), Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS)
    • Reef Water Quality Protection Plan, Report Card series, Commonwealth and Queensland governments
    • Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report, 2014, Great Barrier Reef marine Park Authority, Commonwealth of Australia
    • The Marine Monitoring Program (MMP), a collaboration of GBRMPA, CSIRO, James Cook University, the University of Queensland and Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS)
    • Bureau of Meteorology, eReefs Marine Water Quality Dashboard, Commonwealth of Australia.
       

    Methods

    16 The Marine Monitoring Program collects data and reports on coral, seagrass and water condition in the Great Barrier Reef Report Card Series. This is a part of Reef Water Quality Protection Plan (Reef Plan). The aim of the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan is to reduce land-based impacts on Great Barrier Reef water quality and ecosystem condition. The plan is guided by Scientific Consensus Statements compiled by experts in the field aimed at measuring and reducing the impact of terrestrial activities upon water quality and marine condition. The Scientific Consensus Statement provides the underpinning science, updated every 5 years with each new plan. A new version is about to be released in September 2017, along with a new draft Water Quality Protection Plan.

    17 Coral, water quality and seagrass condition reported in this publication was sourced from the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan, Great Barrier Reef Report Card series. Table 4 below shows the status of these marine indicators based on score ranges. Methods on how condition scores are produced are available in the Great Barrier Reef 2015 Report Card - Marine Methods. Water quality scores were not provided for Cape York and the Burnett Mary regions due to lack of available ground level data for validation.

    Table 1. Scoring system for marine quality indicators

    ScoreStatus
    1 - 20Very poor condition
    21 - 40Poor condition
    41 - 60Moderate condition
    61 - 80Good condition
    81 - 100Very good condition
    Source: Reef Water Quality Protection Plan, Report Card Series, Scoring System
     

    18 Hard coral cover, Crown-of thorns starfish (COTS) status and fish abundance data are collected as part of both the Marine Monitoring Program and the Long Term Monitoring Program of the Australian Institute of Marine Science. Data for both programmes was provided by the Australian Institute of Marine Science, with hard coral cover percentage averaged per reef and a geocode attached to each location. Reefs were then allocated to the output areas of NRM region extensions and GBRMPA Management Sectors using ArcGIS and averaged per output region using the reported mean cover. Users should note that per-reef observations comprise one of two methods used to monitor long term hard coral cover, and that "manta tow" observations (for example as summarised in GBR Condition Summary 2016-17) are not included in this dataset. Fish numbers were also averaged per output regions to generate an average abundance.

    19 For COTS outbreaks, the proportion of the incipient and active outbreaks was calculated for the total sampled sites with a outbreak status in the GBR Region.

    20 Measures for Clorophyll-a concentration, coloured dissolved organic matter, non-algal particulates and sea surface temperature (SST) and SST anomaly are collected via satellite imagery by the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) as part of the eReefs program. Detailed methods on how this data is collected and validated are available from eReefs Marine Water Quality Dashboard. Sea surface temperature anomaly is calculated as the difference between SST values and the monthly long-term mean SST. Two climatologies are used to produce products. The first is an IMOS climatology for 2002-2011, constructed for each month using IMOS L3S 1-day night-only SST products in that period. The second climatology used is the CSIRO 1993-2003 climatology that the legacy ReefTemp (V1) system utilised. The use of both climatologies allows for comparisons of products based on different reference periods. All SSTA values appear in the range -4°C to 4°C, (Bureau of Meteorology, 2017, eReefs Marine Water Quality Dashboard, Commonwealth of Australia).

    21 The GBRMPA have published Water Quality Guidelines which determine trigger values for Chlorophyll-a concentration, suspended solids as well as a number of other water quality indicators (Table 2). The trigger values are derived to support a healthy ecosystem.

    Table 2. Guideline trigger values for selected parameters, by water body type

    ParameterOpen Coastal (a)MidshelfOffshore
    Chlorophyll-a concentration (mg-m³)
    0.45
    0.45
    0.4
    Suspended solids (mg/L)
    2.0
    2.0
    0.7
    Open coastal is also known as Inshore Marine.
    Source: Water Quality Guidelines for Great Barrier Reef Marine Park,GBRMPA, 2010, pg. 68.
     

    Data issues

    22 For coral, the Marine Monitoring Program data collection occurs between May and October each year. While a split of observations within each season to attribute condition to financial years is possible, it was deemed not in keeping with the design of their sampling methodology and thus calendar years were reported. Users are encouraged to provide feedback on the utility of a mix of calendar and financial year reporting periods.

    23 Terrestrial NRM regions extend beyond the low tide mark and into the marine portion of the account, but do not extend to the limit of the Marine Park. The extension of these boundaries, from a few kilometres offshore to the limit of the Marine Park, applies a diagonal straight line to the offshore boundary of the Marine Park. The direction of the line gives some recognition to general hydrodynamics of the waters.

    Terrestrial extent and condition - land accounts

    Data sources

    Non-ABS sources

    • Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD), Geoscience Australia (GA)
    • Land Valuations file, State of Queensland (Department of Natural Resources and Mines).
       

    Scope

    24 Users should note that the terrestrial extent of the land accounts is defined by the ABS NRMR boundaries, which are an ASGS approximation of NRM region boundaries, as discussed above.

    Methods

    25 Methods and explanatory notes for the land cover and land use tables are available from the Land Account: Queensland, Experimental Estimates, 2011-2016 (cat. no. 4609.0.55.003).

    26 The land cover by land use tables were created by combining DLCD and Land Valuations file data. The DLCD V2 beta was provided by GA as a 250 metre by 250 metre grid for Australia. Using ESRI ArcMap™, the DLCD V2 beta for 2010-11 and 2014-15 was converted to a feature using the ‘Raster to Polygon’ function. The output of this conversion was then intersected with the valuations cadastre for 2011 and 2016. The output of this tool provides a spatial layer which includes information on land use and land cover for every overlapping polygon from the input features. This process can create areas of Land Cover smaller than the resolution of the original grid. Any value of less than 6.25 hectares in area is less than the resolution of the DLCD and should be used with caution. The output layer was converted to a tabular format and a pivot table was created between land use and cover for 2011 and 2010-11 and 2016 and 2014-15 respectively. The differences between the two accounting periods were then calculated and a summary table produced.

    27 It should be noted that the Wetlands Land Cover category includes both floodplains and wetland areas. Therefore, changes between periods of flooding to relatively dry conditions can cause decreases to the wetlands estimates. A similar story applies to the decrease in the Land Cover of Trees (379,053 ha), reflecting changes from a wet, green period in 2011 to the drier 2015 period. The scope of the Land Cover component of the Land Account only covers the period between 2010-11 to 2014-15.

    28 Users should be aware that discrepancies exist between data collection dates. DLCD provides a land cover reference based on 2 years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for 2010-11 and 2014-15, while land use was derived from Queensland valuations data extracted as at 30 June 2011 and 30 June 2016.

    Terrestrial extent and condition - rainfall

    Data sources

    • Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), Commonwealth of Australia.
       

    Methods

    29 A custom extract was supplied by the BoM with yearly mean annual rainfall for the six NRMR regions and the amalgamated GBR Region.

    Terrestrial extent and condition - river loads

    Data sources

    • Kroon, F.J., Kuhnert, P.M., Henderson, B.L., Wilkinson, S.N., Kinsey-Henderson, A., Abbott, B., Brodie, J.E., & R.D.R. Turner (2012) 'River loads of suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and herbicides delivered to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon', Marine Pollution Bulletin, Number 65, pp.167-181.
    • Joo, M., Raymond, M.A.A., McNeil, V.H., Huggins, R., Turner, R.D.R. & S. Choy (2012) 'Estimates of sediment and nutrient loads in 10 major catchments draining to the Great Barrier Reef during 2006–2009', Marine Pollution Bulletin, Number 65, pp.150-166.
    • Turner, R., Huggins, R., Wallace, R., Smith, R., Vardy, S. & M. Warne (2012) Sediment, Nutrient and Pesticide Loads: Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2009-2010. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation (DSITI).
    • Turner, R., Huggins, R., Wallace, R., Smith, R., Vardy, S. & M. Warne (2013) Total suspended solids, nutrient and pesticide loads (2010-2011) for rivers that discharge to the Great Barrier Reef Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2010-2011. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation (DSITI).
    • Wallace, R., Huggins, R., Smith, R., Turner, R., Vardy, S. & M. Warne (2014) Total suspended solids, nutrient and pesticide loads (2011–2012) for rivers that discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring Program 2011–2012. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation (DSITI).
    • Wallace, R., Huggins, R., Smith, R., Turner, R., A. Garzon-Garcia & M. Warne (2014) Total suspended solids, nutrient and pesticide loads (2012–2013) for rivers that discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring Program 2012–2013. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation (DSITI).
    • Wallace, R., Huggins, R., Smith, R., Turner, R., A. Garzon-Garcia & M. Warne (2015) Total suspended solids, nutrient and pesticide loads (2012–2013) for rivers that discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring Program 2012–2013. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation (DSITI).
    • A. Garzon-Garcia., R. Wallace., R. Huggins., R. D. R. Turner., R. A. Smith., D. Orr, B. Ferguson., R. Gardiner, B. Thomson & M. St. J. Warne (2015) Total suspended solids, nutrient and pesticide loads (2013–2014) for rivers that discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring Program 2013–2014. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation (DSITI).
    • R. Wallace., R. Huggins., O. King, R. Gardiner., B. Thomson, D. N. Orr., B. Ferguson, C. Taylor., R. A. Smith., M. St. J. Warne., R. D. R. Turner & R. M. Mann (2016) Total suspended solids, nutrient and pesticide loads (2013–2014) for rivers that discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring Program 2013–2014. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation (DSITI).
       

    Methods

    30 Data on river loads for catchments in the GBR Region were provided by the Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation (DSITI). These catchments had previously been identified by the Reef Plan (2003) as high risk to the Reef in terms of contaminant exports and therefore they were recommended for priority monitoring. The rivers sampled changed over the time series. To keep a consistent time series the publication only included rivers that were monitored in every year between 2006-07 to 2014-15. The rivers included were the Burdekin River, the Burnett River, the Normanby River, the Fitzroy River, the Pioneer River, the Barron River, the North Johnstone River, the South Johnstone River, the Tully River, and the Herbert River.

    31 This publication presents data for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) but users should note that these pollutants occur in particulate, dissolved inorganic and dissolved organic forms. The 2013 Scientific Consensus Statement on land use impacts on water quality and ecosystem condition notes that: "Overall, increased nitrogen inputs are more important than phosphorus inputs. Dissolved inorganic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus are considered to be of greater concern than dissolved organic and particulate forms as they are immediately bioavailable for supporting algal growth. Particulate forms of nitrogen and phosphorus mostly become bioavailable, but over longer time frames. Most dissolved organic nitrogen typically has limited and delayed bioavailability." For more detail on these key breakdowns of forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, please refer to the Reef Report Card 2015.

    32 Below is a table summarising the percentage of area monitored for the included rivers over the time period and the NRM region each river was included in.

    Table 3. Percentage of area monitored by river, GBR region, 2006-06 to 2014-15

    NRMCatchmentRiver and Site name2006-072007-082008-092009-102010-112011-122012-132013-142014-15
    BurdekinBurdekinBurdekin River at Home Hill
    99.9
    99.9
    99.9
    99
    99
    99
    99
    99
    100
    Burnett MaryBurnettBurnett River at Ben Anderson Barrage
    97
    97
    97
    99
    99
    99
    99
    99
    99
    Cape YorkNormanbyNormanby River At Kalpowar Crossing
    53
    53
    53
    53
    53
    53
    53
    53
    53
    FitzroyFitzroyFitzroy River at Rockhampton
    98
    98
    98
    98
    98
    98
    98
    98
    98
    Mackay WhitsundayPioneerPioneer River at Dumbleton Pump Station
    80
    80
    80
    94
    94
    94
    94
    94
    93
    Wet TropicsBarronBarron River at Myola
    86
    86
    86
    89
    89
    89
    89
    89
    89
    North JohnstoneNorth Johnstone River at old Bruce Highway Bridge (Goondi)`
    60
    60
    60
    40
    40
    40
    40
    41
    41
    South JohnstoneSouth Johnstone River at Upstream Central
    na
    na
    na
    17
    17
    17
    17
    17
    17
    TullyTully River at Euramo
    83
    83
    83
    86
    86
    86
    86
    86
    86
    HerbertHebert River at Ingham
    88
    88
    88
    87
    87
    87
    87
    87
    87

    33 The below table summarises the area of the monitored service area, the catchment area, the basin area and the total NRM region area. The per area yields where based on the amounts of pollutant loads per km2 of the monitored surface area and separated by NRM region.

    Table 4. NRM region basin surface area and catchment surface area, GBR region

    NRMBasinNRM area km²Basin surface area km²Catchment surface area km²Monitored surface area (2014-15) km²
    BurdekinBurdekin
    140 834
    130 120
    129 930
    129 930
    Burnett MaryBurnett
    55 633
    33 207
    33 179
    32 841
    Cape YorkNormanby
    428
    24 408
    15 030
    12 920
    FitzroyFitzroy
    156 604
    142 552
    139 289
    139 159
    Mackay WhitsundayPioneer
    9 230
    1 570
    1 570
    1 466
    Wet TropicsBarron
    22187
    2 182
    2 149
    1 933
    North Johnstone  
    1 082
    960
    South Johnstone 
    2 321
    545
    400
    Tully 
    1 683
    1 563
    1 450
    Herbert 
    9 843
    8 817
    8 584

    Biodiversity

    Data sources

    Scope

    34 For the accounts of threatened species in the GBR Region, the differing categories used in state, national and international listings were broadly concorded to form a new set of categories for the purpose of comparison between the three geographical scales. The IUCN Red List (Red List) was used for international listings of threatened fauna, the Environmental Protection Biodiversity Conservation Act (EPBC) for national listings, and the Queensland Nature Conservation Act (NCA) for state listings. This concordance table is presented in the Biodiversity section text.

    35 Species in scope for these accounts were species which occurred within the GBR Region and were deemed threatened by the NCA. Therefore, species deemed threatened by either the EPBC or the Red List but not by the NCA were not considered here. Some species listed as threatened by the NCA which occur in the GBR Region were then omitted from these species accounts for reasons such as unresolved taxonomy or dubious records; more specific detail is provided for each faunal group below.

    36 While the species in scope for these accounts are based on the NCA, they have also been examined according to the Red List in order to examine change over time. Please note that these species accounts only display the concorded threat categories to allow for comparison of the two lists. It is also worth noting that several Red List categories from 1994 have since been superseded (for example, the ‘Conservation Dependent’ category from 1994 has been considered here as ‘Near Threatened’).

    Birds

    37 All twenty-eight bird species listed by the NCA are also on the Red List. Omitted from the threatened birds accounts are the subspecies listed by NCA: the Cape York and Wet Tropics populations of the Southern Cassowary subspecies (recorded as two entries on the NCA for the same subspecies); the Double-eyed Fig Parrot has two subspecies listed only, the Coxen’s and Macleay’s Fig Parrot; the Antipodean Albatross subspecies; the Eclectus Parrot subspecies; the Yellow Chat subspecies; the Squatter Pigeon subspecies; the Crimson Finch subspecies; the Star Finch subspecies; the Rufous Owl subspecies; the Ground Parrot subspecies; the Plumed Frogmouth subspecies; the Black-throated Finch subspecies; and the Masked Owl subspecies. More information is available at Bird Life Australia: Threats to Birds.

    Mammals

    38 Twenty-six mammal species listed by the NCA are recognised by the Red List; in total the NCA lists 30 species and 7 subspecies. Omitted from the threatened mammals account are the Western Quoll subspecies; two populations of the Spotted-tailed Quoll subspecies; the Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat subspecies; the undescribed Wet Tropics subspecies of the Yellow-bellied Glider; the Long-nosed Potoroo subspecies; the Bare-rumped Sheathtail Bat subspecies; and the Percy Island Flying Fox due to unclear taxonomy and uncertain specimen identification.

    Fish

    39 Five fish species listed by the NCA are also on the Red List. Omitted from the threatened fish account however are two fish species included on the NCA list due to problematic and unresolved taxonomy. The first is the Black Stiphodon which is listed by the NCA as Stiphodon pelewensis and is considered Vulnerable. The Red List does have S. pelewensis listed as Least Concern, but it does not include Australia as part of its range; it only lists Guam, Japan, Micronesia, and Palau. The Red List has the Black Stiphodon listed instead as S. atratus which it categorises as Data Deficient; the EPBC does not list either species. The second species omitted here is Stiphodon surrufus listed by the NCA as Vulnerable; the Red List also records this species as Vulnerable, but only has it occurring in the Philippines; the EPBC does not list this species either. There was one new species added to the list, Stiphodon rutilaureus described in 1996.

    Reptiles

    40 Eighteen reptile species listed by the NCA are on the Red List. While the NCA lists 48 species and 3 subspecies of reptile, only 47 species are considered here; omitted from the threatened reptiles account are the Common Death Adder due to unclear taxonomy, two populations of the Littoral Whiptail-skink subspecies, and the Diamond Head Turtle subspecies. There was one new species added between 1994 and 2017, the Gulbaru Gecko, described in 2003.

    Frogs

    41 There are 35 species of frog listed by the NCA which are recognised by the Red List (the NCA lists 37 species in total).

    Invertebrates. While the Queensland NCA lists 8 species as threatened, only three of these species are listed on the IUCN Red List. Omitted from the threatened frog account are two invertebrate subspecies listed by the NCA; the Australian Fritillary subspecies and the Apollo Jewel subspecies.

    Employment and business profile

    Data sources

    42 The results of these studies are based, in part, on ABR data supplied by the Registrar to the ABS under A New Tax System (Australian Business Number) Act 1999 and tax data supplied by the ATO to the ABS under the Taxation Administration Act 1953. These require that such data is only used for the purpose of carrying out functions of the ABS. No individual information collected under the Census and Statistics Act 1905 is provided back to the Registrar or ATO for administrative or regulatory purposes. Any discussion of data limitations or weaknesses is in the context of using the data for statistical purposes, and is not related to the ability of the data to support the ABR or ATO’s core operational requirements. Legislative requirements to ensure privacy and secrecy of this data have been followed. Only people authorised under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975 have been allowed to view data about any particular firm in conducting these analyses. In accordance with the Census and Statistics Act 1905, results have been confidentialised used to ensure that they are not likely to enable identification of a particular person or organisation.

    Scope

    43 The employment and business profile of the GBR Catchment Area and its constituent NRM regions consists of statistics derived from administrative data sources. Regions are defined using ASGS approximations of NRM regions, as discussed above.

    Methods

    44 Administrative data sources (taxation data) were used in order to produce statistical estimates at the appropriate geography for this publication, since the Australian System of National Accounts produces national and state level estimates and collections which support the Australian System of National Accounts are not designed for estimation at sub-state regional levels. The ABS produces a partial set of Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (cat. no. 5220.0) but no country currently compiles a complete set of SNA accounts for regions of a national economy, with most countries focussing on allocating productive activities to regions. This is largely due to conceptual difficulties with the allocation of economic activity of multi-region institutional units. For more discussion about the difficulties of regional breakdowns of National Accounts, see chapter 21 - State Accounts in the Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2015 (cat. no. 5216.0).

    Jobs data

    45 Jobs data for 2011-12 uses the Employee Earnings and Jobs dataset to produce 2011-12 estimates regarding specific jobs by industry. Person and business level data for 2011-2012, sourced from the Personal Income Tax data and the Expanded Analytical Business Longitudinal Database respectively, were used to construct the Integrated Dataset from which estimates were created.

    46 Analysis was conducted to assess the comparability of aggregate statistics produced from the full Integrated Dataset (experimental statistics) and those from related ABS household and business survey collections. They were found to be broadly coherent; however, differences were identified due to the differences in scope, sample design, collection methodology and processing approaches. Moreover, the Integrated Dataset is based on data collected for administrative purposes, whereas ABS collections are designed to create statistical outputs.

    47 The dataset aims to cover all employee earnings and jobs in Australia throughout the reference period of 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. The scope includes:

    • All persons who were an employee at any point in the reference period as recorded on either an Individual Tax Return (ITR) or an Individual PAYG summary;
    • All jobs as reported in an Individual PAYG summary during the reference period; and
    • All businesses which provided an Individual PAYG summary to an employee in the reference period.
       

    48 Employees who meet one of the following conditions are excluded from coverage:

    • Employees who did not report earnings on an ITR for any of the following reasons:
      • Did not submit an ITR for any of the reasons outlined on pages 6 and 7 of the Individual Tax Return Instructions 2012;
      • Did not submit an ITR for any other reason; or
      • Submitted an ITR but did not report their applicable earnings.
         
    • Employees who did not receive an Individual PAYG summary from an employer for any reason including:
      • They worked for cash in hand or other payments not recorded on an Individual PAYG summary;
      • They conducted illicit activities not recorded on Individual PAYG summaries; or
      • They did not supply their Tax File Number to their employer.
         

    49 There were no businesses excluded on the basis of coverage.

    50 For further information on the Integrated Dataset, refer to Information Paper: Construction of Experimental Statistics on Employee Earnings and Jobs from Administrative Data, Australia, 2011-12 (cat. no. 6311.0).

    51 Access to a one-tenth sample microdata product, coded to the Statistical Area 4 geographical level, is available as a subscription microdata service. For more information see Microdata: Employee Earnings and Jobs, Australia, 2011-12 (cat. no. 6311.0.55.001).

    Employee income and occupation data

    52 Employee counts and income by occupation for 2010-11 to 2014-15 use confidentialised Personal Income Tax data. Occupation codes are derived from self-reported main occupations on personal income tax forms. For more information on this data source see Estimates of Personal Income for Small Areas, 2011-2015 (cat. no. 6524.0.55.002).

    53 The scope of the ATO statistics presented in this release are data items relating to income standards the ABS uses for its income surveys. However the scope of the ATO statistics presented in this release exclude Government pensions, benefits or allowances. All data presented are gross income before deductions. The amounts shown are nominal, they have not been adjusted for inflation.

    54 Income presented in this publication has been categorised into income types, these categories have been devised by the ABS to closely align to ABS' definitions of income. The categories are comprised from the items displayed in the list in paragraph 54, from income tax returns (2010-11 income tax return items listed below, other years may have label changes):

    55 Employee income is the total (or gross) income received as a return for labour from an employer or from a person's own incorporated business (when they are employed by this business). This source of income includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:

    • Q1-CDEFG Total income from wage and salary (before tax and application of Medicare levy) as shown on the 'PAYG payment summary - individual non-business';
    • Q2-K Allowances, earnings, tips, director's fees, etc;
    • Q3-RH Employer lump sum payments;
    • Q4-I Employment termination payments;
    • Q9-O Attributed personal services income;
    • Q12-B Employee share schemes;
    • IT1-W Reportable fringe benefits (gross value not adjusted);
    • IT2-T Reportable employer superannuation contributions;
    • Q20- N Exempt foreign employment income; and
    • Q20-T Other net foreign employment income.
       

    56 Total Income in datacube table 8 is the sum of all income derived from Employee income as defined above, as well as Own unincorporated business, Superannuation and annuities, Investments and Other income (excluding Government pensions, benefits or allowances), which are aggregates defined in the explanatory notes of Estimates of Personal Income for Small Areas, 2011-2015 (cat. no. 6524.0.55.002).

    57 Please note that income tax return labels and names may change over time, the relevant item is used for each financial year.

    Business counts

    58 This section presents counts of businesses based on snapshots of actively trading businesses as at June 30, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR). These estimates use the same methods as those used to produce Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits (cat. no. 8165.0), extracted from the ABSBR. Most businesses in Australia need to obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN). These businesses are then included on the whole of government register of businesses, the Australian Business Register (ABR). The ABS uses information from the ABR as well as data supplied by the Australian Tax Office (ATO) to populate its internal register of businesses, the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR).

    59 The data supplied to the ABS is provided under the Taxation Administration Act 1953 and A New Tax System (Australian Business Number) Act 1999. Under the Census and Statistics Act 1905, this data can only be used for the purpose of carrying out the functions of the ABS. Further information regarding these Acts can be found at the Federal Register of Legislation website. Information about the ABR can be obtained from the ABR website and the ATO website. Legislative requirements to ensure privacy and confidentiality of these data have been followed. Only people authorised under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975 have been allowed to view data about any particular firm in conducting these analyses. Results have been confidentialised in accordance with the Census and Statistics Act 1905, to ensure that they are not likely to enable identification of a particular person or organisation.

    60 The statistical unit referred to as a 'business' consists of two types of unit. The ABSBR contains two populations are known as the profiled population and the non-profiled population. The main distinction between businesses in the two populations relates to the complexity of the business structure and the degree of intervention required to reflect the business structure for statistical purposes. The unit referred to as a 'business' thus consists of ABNs from the non-profiled population and 'Type of Activity Units' (TAUs) from the profiled population. The vast majority of units are from the non-profiled population while a small number of typically large, complex, and diverse groups of businesses are composed of TAUs in the ABSBR. For more detail on the ABSBR structure see the explanatory notes of Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits (cat. no. 8165.0).

    61 The issues of geocoding multi location businesses are more pronounced for count data at a regional level such as the GBR Region, as multi location businesses (businesses registered under a single ABN/TAU but operating in more than one location) will only be attributed to a single location. For businesses in the non-profiled population, location is derived from the main business address. For businesses in the profiled population, location is the location with the highest employment. Therefore, for some businesses in the profiled population, main state is not necessarily the state or territory of the main business address.

    62 Counts of businesses produced from the ABSBR are comprised of actively trading businesses in the Australian economy. Actively trading businesses are:

    • TAUs from the profiled population (where activity is monitored via direct contact with the business)
    • ABNs from the non-profiled population that are actively remitting in respect of a Goods and Services Tax (GST) role.
       

    63 Limiting the scope to only businesses with a GST role means that only entities that are actively trading in goods or services are included. Business entities with a turnover below $75,000 do not have to register for GST and hence those who have not registered will not be included in these counts. Entities not considered to be actively trading in the market sector are not considered to be businesses and, as such, are also excluded from these business counts.

    64 Units on the ABSBR have been classified according to the Standard Institutional Sector Classification of Australia (SISCA) 2008, Type of Legal Organisation (TOLO) and Australian and New Zealand Industry Classification (ANZSIC) 2006. These classifications are used to determine whether a business unit is in scope of counts of Australian businesses. Entities classified to certain categories of SISCA, TOLO and ANZSIC have been excluded on this basis. A full list of exclusions is available in the explanatory notes of Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits (cat. no. 8165.0).

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

    Data sources

    Scope

    65 Regions are defined using ASGS approximations of NRM regions, as discussed above.

    Methods

    66 The ABS National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey, 2014-15 (NATSISS) (cat. no. 4714.0) was conducted throughout Australia including remote areas, from September 2014 to June 2015. It provided data on participation in cultural activities, in particular, the data item 'Type of selected cultural activities participated in last 12 months' was selected as an indicator cultural services provided by the GBR ecosystem.

    Expenditure on environmental goods and services

    Data sources

    Methods

    67 Data reported in the table ‘Expenditure on Environmental Goods and Services (EGS) in the GBR Region’ are sourced from the Reef 2050 Plan – Investment Baseline Report. The investment baseline provides an overview of the level of expenditures committed to Reef activities based on an assessment of funding in 2014-15. It does not detail expenditure on every individual program that may contribute to implementation of the Reef 2050 Plan. The information provided in the report relates primarily to investment expenditures.

    68 The classification of environmental goods and services was assigned to various reported investment expenditures in accordance with the SEEA Central Framework definitions for environment specific goods and services, integrated technologies, sole-purpose products, adapted goods and end-of-pipe technologies. Expenditures were classified based on textual descriptions contained within the Baseline report.

    Data issues

    69 Data initially reported within the Baseline Investment Report has been partially modified by the ABS, in consultation with the Department of the Environment and Energy. An additional $8 million was added to the reported total for ‘Australian Government, Environment Specific Services expenditure’. The Department of the Environment and Energy advised the ABS of a reporting error omitting $8 million invested in Joint Field Management Program investments, from the reported total with the Baseline report.

    70 The Environmental Goods and Services (EGS) reported in this section do not represent total EGS Sector within the GBR. For example, contributions from CSIRO, BOM and the ABS to the 2014-15 figures are not included. Data on sole-purpose products, adapted goods and end-of-pipe technology were not available.

    71 Totals may not add up to the reported totals in the Investment Baseline due to rounding and the $8 million adjustment to the Australian Government sector.

    Tourism

    Data sources

    ABS sources:

    Non-ABS sources:

    • Tourism Research Australia, International Visitors Survey
    • Tourism Research Australia, National Visitors Survey
    • Tourism Research Australia, State Tourism Satellite Account, 2012-13
    • Tourism Research Australia, Regional Profiles, 2011-12
    • Tourism Profiles, Tourism and Events Queensland
    • Statistical Tables, Reserve Bank of Australia
    • Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Environmental Management Charge (EMC).
       

    Scope

    72 Regions are defined using ASGS approximations of NRM regions, as discussed above.

    Methods

    73 Regional breakdowns of expenditure, visitor counts and visitor nights were provided for NRM regions and the GBR Catchment Area as a whole by Tourism Research Australia, derived from the International and Domestic Visitor Surveys (IVS and NVS). The NVS is a large-scale telephone survey and is designed to measure domestic and outbound travel by Australian residents. The IVS samples 40,000 departing, short-term international travellers aged 15 years and over. The survey is conducted by Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) in the departure lounges of the eight major international airports.

    74 Tourism estimates are derived via splitting Tourism Satellite Account estimates from a national level using regional expenditure data as a proxy. The Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) (Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (cat. no. 5249.0) identifies tourism activity within each industry. It describes the size and economic contribution of tourism, through the measurement of tourism direct gross value added (GVA) and tourism direct gross domestic product. It also provides detailed data on tourist consumption, employment in tourism-related activities, and non-monetary information such as visitor numbers. For more information about the TSA, refer to that publication's explanatory notes.

    75 The TSA enabled the estimation of a "tourism rent" figure as defined below. As with Fishing, Aquaculture and Agriculture, economic rent for tourism was calculated in accordance with the SEEA Central Framework method for calculating resource rent. Unlike in those cases, economic rent for tourism is not considered to solely identify an ecosystem services input:

     Supply (or Australian production) of tourism products by industry at basic prices
    lesstaxes on tourism products
    plussubsidies on tourism products
     Input (or operating) costs for tourism connected businesses
    lessintermediate consumption at purchasers' prices
    lesscompensation of employees
    lessother taxes on production for tourism connected industries
    plusother subsidies on production for tourism connected industries
    equalsGross operating surplus and mixed income (SNA basis) for tourism connected businesses
     User costs of produced assets
    lessconsumption of fixed capital for tourism connected industries (unpublished data)
    plusreturn to produced assets for tourism connected industries (unpublished data)
     (Large business lending rate (variable) rate times net capital stock for tourism connected businesses)
     Resource rent for tourism connected businesses
    equalsdepletion + net return to non-produced (environmental) assets for tourism connected businesses
    Sources:
    Australian System of National Accounts (cat. no. 5204.0) (published and unpublished data)
    Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (cat. no. 5249.0) (published and unpublished data)
    Statistical Tables, Reserve Bank of Australia
     

    76 Tourism rent was first calculated for tourism at the national level, and then the share of tourism production in the GBR Region was estimated. Tourism Research Australia's State Tourism Satellite Account was the major data source - this publication provided state level estimates based on the International Visitors Survey, National Visitors Survey, ABS Tourism Satellite Account and ABS State Accounts data. It includes estimates of key variables in tourism such as Direct Tourism Consumption, Tourism Gross Value Added and employment counts.

    77 Offshore tourism expenditure was measured via data on the Environmental Management Charge for entry to the GBR Marine Park. This represents the exchange value of the offshore Reef area, showing what people actually pay to access the area's ecosystem services.

    Data issues

    78 Regional breakdowns of National Accounts and Tourism Satellite Account data used to calculate GBR Region tourism estimates could be improved with the availability of small-area estimates of Gross Value Added, Compensation of Employees, Capital Stock etc. The future availability of such data would allow for individual regional ratios to be estimated for different variables, instead of the same ratio being used for all data items.

    Isolating ecosystem services inputs in monetary terms

    79 It is conceptually possible, but very challenging in practice, to assign shares of tourism expenditure activity to ecosystem inputs.

    80 Tourism Research Australia publishes information by tourist region on experiences by visitors. These regions use a different spatial boundary to the NRM regions used in this publication. While this makes comparisons difficult it does provide information about what share of visitors to a region are having experiences of different kinds (i.e. Culture and heritage, Nature based, Indigenous, and Food and wine). For example, in the Whitsundays tourist region (which is smaller than the Mackay Whitsunday NRM), 40% of domestic overnight visitors had 'Nature based' experiences and 75% had 'Food and wine' experiences. For international visitors, the shares were 96% having 'Nature based' experiences and 95% 'Food and wine' experiences, as well as 43% having Indigenous experiences.

    81 It would be difficult to determine from information about experiences, a monetary share for each experience, and therefore difficult to assign a share of the overall 'tourism rent' estimate for ecosystem services. Experience categories aren't mutually exclusive, and particular experiences during visits may not be the motivating factor behind a specific choice of destination or visit. For example, a visitor may choose to come to the Whitsundays primarily to visit beaches and go diving, and thus be there specifically to enjoy the cultural ecosystem services the region provides. Regardless, they will also presumably have specific culinary experiences that are probably attributable to the ecosystem service. Calculating each share of the ecosystem service could be undertaken based on visitor counts or by expenditure information if data were available at sufficient detail about the primary motivator for visitors. Such a collection may be available for some specific areas of special interest (for example, some work for valuing National Parks is based on surveys of this nature), but is unlikely to be collected in a systematic way across large areas due to resource and provider burden constraints.

    The Environmental Management Charges (EMC) relationship to other sources of ecosystem services valuation

    82 The EMC is a charge that is independent of services offered by operators within the park, and is wholly directed at park management. It is an observed market transaction, and represents a payment that upholds the ecosystem's ability to provide a tourism experience. Therefore, as noted above, the EMC can be attributed to the region as a measure of the value of the cultural ecosystem service of tourism.

    83 The EMC is a subset of total tourist expenditure as reported in visitor surveys. This is because expenditure information is sourced from visitor surveys and operators will generally pass on the charge to customers.

    84 The question of whether the EMC is embedded within estimates of Tourism Rent is more complicated. In concept, the EMC should be counted as an additional source of value to the estimate of ecosystem services embedded in tourism economic rent. The reason is that the EMC appears in the Australian System of National Accounts as a tax on products, which is deducted from the calculation of gross operating surplus before estimates of rent are derived. It should not therefore form part of the additional value extracted from tourist attractions.

    85 In practice, the EMC is recorded in tourism surveys as noted above. This increases total expenditure by tourists and impacts on the expenditure ratios used as a proxy to apportion tourism activity regionally. Thus, the EMC will give the GBR Region a slightly higher share of national expenditure than it otherwise would have, due to this increased cost to tourists. The size of the impact is expected to be negligible.

    86 The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) is responsible for managing the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and this charge. Agency funding to GBRMPA other than the EMC is excluded as a source of valuation of the cultural service of tourism but is included within the Expenditure on Environmental Goods and Services estimates in this publication. The EMC is, however, as noted in the section text, counted as both a valuation of cultural ecosystem services in tourism, and also as contributing to Expenditure on Environmental Goods and Services within that section.

    Fishing and aquaculture

    Data sources

    • Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (QLD DAF), State government
    • Michael Heidenreich (2016) ‘Ross Lobegeiger Report to Farmers, Aquaculture production summary for Queensland 2015-16’ Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (QLD DAF) (2016).
       

    Methods

    87 Data reported in tables for fishing and aquaculture were delivered in aggregate form, customised to NRM boundaries by the Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (QLD DAF).

    88 Fishing production data were acquired through the QFISH data portal of QLD DAF. The change in physical production for each grid cell between 2000 -01 and 2015-16 was calculated and mapped in ArcGIS using grid boundaries acquired from QSpatial - the Queensland Government Spatial Catalogue. Resource rent was not calculated for Fishing and Aquaculture in 2015-16 as ABS supply-use data that feed into the resource rent estimate were not available at the time or release.

    89 Data for the ANZSIC06 Subdivision of Fishing, Hunting and Trapping was used to calculate estimates for Fishing. The Hunting and Trapping component of Gross Operating Surplus for this Subdivision was considered so small as to be immaterial to the results of the calculations ecosystem input calculations for Fishing.

    90 The box below summarises the calculations performed to derive estimates of the Ecosystem Service (Resource Rent) for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 04 Fishing, Hunting and Trapping:

     Supply (or Australian production) by ANZSIC06 Subdivision 04 Fishing, Hunting and Trapping at basic prices
    lesstaxes on fishing products
    plussubsidies on fishing products
     Input (or operating) costs for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 04 Fishing, Hunting and Trapping
    lessintermediate consumption at purchasers' prices
    lesscompensation of employees
    lessother taxes on fishing production
    plusother subsidies on fishing production
    equalsGross operating surplus and mixed income (SNA basis) for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 04 Fishing, Hunting and Trapping
     User costs of produced assets for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 04 Fishing, Hunting and Trapping
    lessconsumption of fixed capital for the fishing industry (unpublished data)
    plusreturn to produced assets for the fishing industry (unpublished data)
     (RBA large business lending rate (variable) times net capital stock for the fishing industry)
     Resource rent for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 04 Fishing, Hunting and Trapping
    equalsdepletion for the fishing industry
    plusnet return to non-produced (environmental) assets for the fishing industry
    Sources - Fishing
    Australian System of National Accounts (cat. no. 5204.0) (published and unpublished data)
    Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables (cat. no. 5209.0.55.001) (published and unpublished data)
    Statistical Tables, Reserve Bank of Australia
    Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (QLD DAF) (unpublished data)
     

    91 Data on aquaculture production was only available for the total GBR Region - there was no regional split. The value estimates for 2012-13 to 2015-16 were derived by using regional and state estimates of physical production. A further adjustment was made to account for the difference between the value per tonne of the regions, both inside and outside the GBR Region.

    92 The box below summarises the calculations performed to derive estimates of the Ecosystem Service (Resource Rent) for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 02 Aquaculture:

     Supply (or Australian production) by ANZSIC06 Subdivision 02 Aquaculture at basic prices
    lesstaxes on aquacultural products
    plussubsidies on aquacultural products
     Input (or operating) costs for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 02 Aquaculture
    lessintermediate consumption at purchasers' prices
    lesscompensation of employees
    lessother taxes on aquacultural production
    plusother subsidies on aquacultural production
    equalsGross operating surplus and mixed income (SNA basis) for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 02 Aquaculture
     User costs of produced assets for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 02 Aquaculture
    lessconsumption of fixed capital for the aquacultural industry (unpublished data)
    plusreturn to produced assets for the aquacultural industry (unpublished data)
     (RBA large business lending rate (variable) times net capital stock for the aquacultural industry)
     Resource rent for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 02 Aquaculture
    equalsdepletion for the aquaculture industry
    plusnet return to non-produced (environmental) assets for the aquacultural industry
    Sources - Aquaculture
    Australian System of National Accounts (cat. no. 5204.0) (published and unpublished data)
    Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables (cat. no. 5209.0.55.001) (published and unpublished data)
    Statistical Tables, Reserve Bank of Australia
    Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (QLD DAF) (unpublished data)
     

    Agriculture and forestry

    ABS sources

    Non-ABS sources

    Scope

    93 The scope for the 2015-16 Agricultural Census included all agricultural businesses undertaking agricultural activity recorded on the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Business Register with an Estimated Value of Agricultural Operations (EVAO) of $40,000 or greater. This was a change from previous ABS rural environment and agricultural collections including the Agricultural Census, where agricultural businesses with an EVAO of $5,000 or greater were used. As the $5,000 scope has a longer time series it was used for the 2007-08 to 2014-15 estimates. The 2015-16 tables used the new $40,000 scope. The 2014-15 reference year can be used to assess how the scope change may have impacted overall estimates, as data on the gross value from both scopes are presented in the Data Cube.

    94 Regions are defined using ASGS approximations of NRM regions, as discussed above.

    Methods

    95 GBR Region estimates for agricultural production were sourced from the ABS Agricultural Census and Agricultural Surveys. The valuation of ecosystem services input via the resource rent method was calculated from National Accounts data compiled for the whole of Australia, as described above.

    96 Meat production in tonnes for cattle, sheep, swine and chickens, where modelled, using the regional VACP as a proxy to derive regional physical production estimates from state estimates. The same method was used to calculate physical milk production.

    97 Milk production was converted to tonnes using a conversion factor of 1 litre to 1.03 kilograms. Egg production was converted into tonnes using 650 grams for every dozen eggs. These estimates form a component of the physical in 'Other Livestock Products'.

    98 There were some missing physical production numbers in the 'other' categories of different commodity groups. The 'other' categories were derived taking the average yield of the other commodities in its commodity group. This method was used to calculate other broadacre crops, other vegetables and other orchard fruit, other stone fruit, other citrus fruit and other fruit not elsewhere classified. This forms a component of the horticulture and “Other Broadacre Crops excluding Sugar and Cotton” estimate.

    99 The box below summarises the calculations performed to derive estimates of the ecosystem service input via the resource rent method for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 01 Agriculture:

     Supply (or Australian production) by ANZSIC06 Subdivision 01 Agriculture at basic prices
    lesstaxes on agricultural products
    plussubsidies on agricultural products
     Input (or operating) costs for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 01 Agriculture
    lessintermediate consumption at purchasers' prices
    lesscompensation of employees
    lessother taxes on agricultural production
    plusother subsidies on agricultural production
    equalsGross operating surplus and mixed income (SNA basis) for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 01 Agriculture
     User costs of produced assets for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 01 Agriculture
    lessconsumption of fixed capital for the agricultural industry (unpublished data)
    plusreturn to produced assets for the agricultural industry (unpublished data)
     (RBA large business lending rate (variable) times net capital stock for the agricultural industry)
     Resource rent for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 01 Agriculture
    equalsdepletion for the agricultural industry
    plusnet return to non-produced (environmental) assets for the agricultural industry
    Sources - Agriculture
    Australian System of National Accounts (cat. no. 5204.0) (published and unpublished data)
    Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables (cat. no. 5209.0.55.001) (published and unpublished data)
    Statistical Tables, Reserve Bank of Australia
    Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (cat. no. 7503.0)
    Agricultural Commodities, Australia (cat. no. 7121.0)
     

    Forestry

    100 Forestry production data for the GBR Region was not available for this publication. Therefore, regional employment and income data was used as a proxy to calculate production and value estimates with Queensland production estimates from the Australian Bureau of Agricultural Resource Economics and Sciences. The employment and income data used was only available from 2010-11 to 2014-15.

    101 The box below summarises the calculations performed to derive estimates of the Ecosystem Service (Resource Rent) for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 03 Forestry and Logging:

     Supply (or Australian production) by ANZSIC06 Subdivision 03 Forestry and Logging
    lesstaxes on forestry and logging products
    plussubsidies on forestry and logging products
     Input (or operating) costs for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 03 Forestry and Logging
    lessintermediate consumption at purchasers' prices
    lesscompensation of employees
    lessother taxes on forestry and logging production
    plusother subsidies on forestry and logging production
    equalsGross operating surplus and mixed income (SNA basis) for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 03 Forestry and Logging
     User costs of produced assets for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 03 Forestry and Logging
    lessconsumption of fixed capital for the forestry and logging industry (unpublished data)
    plusreturn to produced assets for the forestry and logging industry (unpublished data)
     (RBA large business lending rate (variable) times net capital stock for the forestry and logging industry)
     Resource rent for ANZSIC06 Subdivision 03 Forestry and Logging
    equalsdepletion for the forestry and logging industry
    plusnet return to non-produced (environmental) assets for the forestry and logging industry
    Sources - Forestry and Logging
    Australian System of National Accounts (cat. no. 5204.0) (published and unpublished data)
    Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables (cat. no. 5209.0.55.001) (published and unpublished data)
    Statistical Tables, Reserve Bank of Australia
     

    Water

    Data sources

    ABS sources

    Non-ABS sources

    Scope

    102 Regions are defined using ASGS approximations of NRM regions, as discussed above.

    Methods

    103 Estimates of water use in agriculture in the GBR Region are based on data available at other geographical levels in the publications Gross Value of Irrigated Agricultural Production (cat. no. 4610.0.55.008) (GVIAP) and Water Use on Australian Farms (cat. no. 4618.0). Water Use on Australian Farms contains estimates from data items relating to water collected in the Agricultural Census and the Rural Environment and Agricultural Commodities Survey.

    104 GVAP is the value placed on recorded production of agricultural commodities at the wholesale prices realised in the market place. It is also referred to as the Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced (VACP). GVIAP refers to the gross value of agricultural commodities that are produced with the assistance of irrigation. The gross value of commodities produced is the value placed on recorded production at the wholesale prices realised in the marketplace. This definition of GVIAP does not refer to the value that irrigation adds to production, i.e. the 'net effect' that irrigation has on production. GVIAP is not a measure of productivity, so extreme care must be taken if attempting to use GVIAP to compare different commodities. Rather, it is a more effective tool for measuring changes over time or comparing regional differences in agricultural production.

    105 Estimating the value that irrigation adds to agricultural production is difficult. This is because water used to grow crops and irrigate pastures comes from a variety of sources. In particular, rainwater is usually a component source of the water used in agriculture. However, the timing and location of rainfall affects the amount of additional irrigation water required. Other factors such as evaporation and soil moisture also affect irrigation water requirements. These factors contribute to regional and temporal variations in the use of water for irrigation. In addition, water is not the only input to agricultural production from irrigated land - fertiliser, land, labour, machinery and other inputs are also used. Quantifying the separate contribution that these factors make to total production is not currently possible.

    106 Estimates of GVIAP are based on production, commodity price and water use data, which are derived from ABS agricultural censuses and surveys, as well as from non-ABS sources, including marketing authorities and industry sources. For detailed information on data sources, scope and coverage of ABS sources used in GVIAP, please refer to the Explanatory Notes contained in the following publications:

    107 Estimated holding of water storage in large urban and rural dams was taken from the Bureau of Metrology (BoM) Regional Water Information data set. The median of each volume holding range was taken and used to derive total storage estimates from the total capacity of dams.

    Carbon

    Data sources

    • Department of the Environment and Energy, Commonwealth of Australia.
       

    Methods

    108 The Department of the Environment and Energy (DoEE) prepared carbon stock estimates for the GBR Region using the same systems and methods used in the National Inventory Report 2015 Volume 2. These methods are consistent with guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

    109 Land types are derived from Landsat data using the following criteria as definitions: A forest is defined as being ≥2m in height and ≥20% canopy cover. Where a settlement or wetland is forested using this criteria, it is classified as forest, unless it is a mangrove. Mangroves are identified using the same height and canopy criteria along coastal areas. Tidal marshes are principally coastal wetlands that do not meet the definition of a forest. Areas of human settlement and inland wetlands that are not a forest are treated as grasslands for the purposes of this account, and may include sparse woody vegetation below the threshold for a forest.

    Data issues

    110 The geographical boundaries used for the GBR Region in this Biocarbon Stock Account are different to those used in the GBR feature article in the ABS Land Account: Queensland, Experimental Estimates, 2011-2016 publication. The Land Account uses ABS Natural Resource Management Regions (NRMRs), which are part of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), as the reporting boundaries. The ASGS boundaries were used to ensure consistency between other social and economic datasets produced by the ABS. The NRMRs are Mesh Block approximations of the DoEE NRM regions. The map below shows the difference in spatial boundaries between the ABS NRMR boundaries and the DoEE NRM boundaries.

    111 Land cover data reported in this Biocarbon Stock Account and the ABS Land Account: Queensland, Experimental Estimates, 2011-2016 were derived from two different data sources. The Land Account uses Geoscience Australia's (GA) Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD) v2.1 classifications and the data from the Land Account should not be used to draw parallels to the carbon stocks presented here.

    Regulating ecosystem services

    Data sources

    • The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) unpublished.
       

    Scope

    112 Coastal ecosystems and land uses that are used for the determination of regulating services are defined in the Coastal Ecosystems Assessment Framework 2012, GBRMPA. The GBRMPA use Regional Ecosystem mapping from the Queensland Herbarium, Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation (DSITI) for the determination of coastal ecosystems. Queensland Land Use Mapping (according to the Australian Land Use Mapping Classification), from the DSITI were used for the determination of land uses within the region. Figures of these coastal ecosystems and land uses are available in the regulating ecosystem services chapter.

    113 Users should note that NRM region boundaries were used for this section and not the ABS NRMR approximations.

    Methods

    114 The GBRMPA prepared regulating capacity estimates. The capacity of NRM regions to provide ecosystem services is estimated using the Ecological Process Calculator developed by the GBRMPA. This model generates scores for a range of physical, biological and biogeochemical processes. These scores provided the basis for comparisons between pre-European (pre-clear) and contemporary (post-clear) reference periods. Within each NRM region, assessments of identified ecological processes are undertaken by local experts and ecologists for each type of coastal ecosystem and land use. These assessments along with the extents of the respective coastal ecosystems and land uses form the basis of a score which represents the capacity to provide each regulating service.

    Data limitations

    115 The Ecological Process Calculator does not consider broader landscape processes, such as river flows, rainfall, upstream and downstream impacts, extreme weather events or alterations to hydrological connectivity. Other components in the landscape, especially underlying soils and geology can have a significant impact on the capacity for a catchment to provide ecological processes (footnote 1).

    116 Ideally, estimates of ecosystem services generated are linked to the beneficiaries or users of ecosystem services; however these beneficiaries may not be located in the same spatial area as the ecosystem generating the services. This is especially true of regulating services, where for example the beneficiaries may be located in urban areas while the services are generated in ecosystems located away from these areas. For example, a water catchment may be located well away from the urban area it serves. However, the experimental estimates contained in this release are unable to link regulating services with the beneficiaries of these services due to the present lack of detailed supporting information required to make these linkages.

    117 The ABS uses the internationally recognised System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 – Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EEA) to guide its development of ecosystem accounting. This framework focuses on the integration of biophysical data, the tracking of changes in ecosystems, and linking those changes to human and economic activity. For this reason, SEEA EEA (footnote 2) denotes two broad categories of ecosystem flows. First are those flows within and between ecosystem assets which reflect ongoing ecosystem processes and which are referred to as intra- and inter-ecosystem flows.

    118 Second, through economic and other human activity, people take advantage of the multitude of resources and processes generated by ecosystem assets. Collectively, these flows to people are referred to as ecosystem services. Thus, SEEA EEA includes as ecosystem services, only those flows that deliver benefits to economic and other human activity. For example, a regulating service of hazard reduction is recorded as an ecosystem service in SEEA EEA only if humans are exposed to the hazard and stand to benefit from its reduction. Further, this ecosystem service may increase over time due to an increasing human population (and commensurate increasing human benefits) even where no change to the physical characteristics of the hazard reduction has occurred.

    119 The experimental estimates of regulating ecosystem services contained in this release include intra- and inter-ecosystem flows and therefore do not strictly follow recommendations of SEEA-EEA. At present there is a lack of detailed supporting information needed to follow this recommendation.

    Footnotes

    1 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority 2012, Coastal Ecosystems Assessment Framework 2012, GBRMPA, Townsville.
    2 SEEA-EEA paragraphs 2.13-2.14.

    Glossary

    Show all

    Abiotic services

    Abiotic services refer to flows from the environment to economic and other human activity that do not arise as a result of bio-physical processes and other interactions within and between ecosystems. The main examples are flows of mineral and energy resources from underground deposits, energy from the sun for the growing of crops and as a renewable source of energy, the movement of wind and tides which can be captured to provide sources of energy, and the provision of space in areas of land and water to undertake economic and other human activity (SEEA, 2012, paras. 3.19-3.21). See also Ecosystem services.

    Adapted goods

    Adapted goods are goods that have been specifically modified to be more “environmentally friendly” or “cleaner” and whose use is therefore beneficial for environmental protection or resource management (SEEA, 2012, para 4.67 and 4.99).

    Anthropogenic

    Anthropogenic refers to phenomena created by people or caused by human activity; for example, anthropogenic pollution.

    Basic price

    The basic price is the amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service produced as output, minus any tax payable plus any subsidy receivable, on that unit as a consequence of its production or sale. It excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer.

    Basic spatial units

    A basic spatial unit (BSU) is a small area. Basic spatial units (BSUs) are formed by delineating tessellations (small areas e.g., 1 km2), typically by overlaying a grid on a map of the relevant territory. They may also be land parcels delineated by a cadastre or using remote sensing pixels (SEEA, 2012, para. 2.52). Basic spatial units are the smallest units in the model used to define areas for the purposes of ecosystem accounting. They can be aggregated to form Land cover / Ecosystem functional units (LCEU) and Ecosystem accounting units (EAU). See also Ecosystem accounting units, Land cover/Ecosystem functional units.

    Beneficiaries

    Beneficiaries are individuals and economic units (enterprises, households, governments and those units in the rest of the world) which receive the benefits to which ecosystem services contribute (SEEA, 2012, paras. 2.76; 2.98; 3.8; and 3.32). See also Benefits, Ecosystem services, Economic units.

    Benefits

    Benefits reflect the goods and services that are ultimately used and enjoyed by people and which contribute to individual and societal well-being (SEEA, 2012, paras. 2.19-2.21). In SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, benefits are distinguished from ecosystem services (which contribute to the generation of benefits) and from well-being (to which benefits contribute). In many studies, benefits and ecosystem services are defined synonymously but this is not the approach taken in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. In some studies, the word 'goods' is used to refer to the concept of benefits as defined here. The term 'goods' is not used here to avoid confusion with the use of the same term in economic statistics where it relates to the production, consumption and accumulation of tangible items (e.g. as used in the phrase 'the production of goods and services'). Two broad types of benefits are described in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. SNA benefits comprise the products (goods and services) produced by economic units (e.g. food, clothing, shelter, entertainment, etc.) within the production boundary defined by the SNA. SNA benefits include goods produced by households for their own consumption. Non-SNA benefits are not generated as a result of economic production processes defined by the SNA. Rather they comprise ecosystem services that do not contribute to the production of SNA goods and services. See also Ecosystem services.

    Biocarbon

    Biocarbon refers to carbon stored in the biosphere, in living and dead biomass and soils (SEEA, 2012, para. 4.97).

    Biodiversity

    Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part, this includes diversity within species, between species and ecosystems (Convention on Biological Diversity, 2003, Article 2, Use of Terms). In SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, the measurement of biodiversity is focused on the assessment of diversity of species although changes in the diversity of ecosystems is also an important output from the measurement of changes in ecosystem extent and condition. See also Ecosystem characteristics.

    Compensation of employees (COE)

    The compensation of employees (COE) is the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an enterprise to an employee in return for work done by the employee during the accounting period. It is further classified into two sub-components: wages and salaries; and employers' social contributions. Compensation of employees is not payable in respect of unpaid work undertaken voluntarily, including the work done by members of a household within an unincorporated enterprise owned by the same household. Compensation of employees excludes any taxes payable by the employer on the wage and salary bill (e.g. payroll tax). See also Employers' social contributions and Wages and salaries.

    Consumer surplus

    Consumer surplus is the gain obtained by consumers because they are able to purchase a product at a market price that is less than the highest price they would be willing to pay (SEEA, 2012, para. 5.19). See also Exchange value, Producer surplus, and Welfare economic value.

    Consumption of fixed capital

    The consumption of fixed capital is the value of the reproducible fixed assets used up during a period of account as a result of normal wear and tear, foreseen obsolescence and the normal rate of accidental damage. Unforeseen obsolescence, major catastrophes and the depletion of natural resources are not taken into account.

    Cultivated biological resources

    Cultivated biological resources cover animal resources yielding repeat products and tree, crop and plant resources yielding repeat products whose natural growth and regeneration are under the direct control, responsibility and management of institutional units (see Chapter 10 of 2008 SNA for more details). They include livestock raised for breeding, dairy, wool, etc., and vineyards, orchards and other plantations of trees.

    Cultural services

    Cultural services relate to the intellectual and symbolic benefits that people obtain from ecosystems through recreation, knowledge development, relaxation, and spiritual reflection (SEEA, 2012, para. 3.4(iii)). See also Ecosystem services, Provisioning services, Regulating services.

    Current prices

    Estimates at current prices are valued at the prices of the period to which the observation relates. For example, estimates for this financial year are valued using this financial year's prices. This contrasts to chain volume measures where the prices used in valuation refer to the prices of the previous year. Current prices are also known as purchasers' prices and market prices.

    Degradation

    See Ecosystem degradation.

    Depletion

    Depletion, in physical terms, is the decrease in the quantity of the stock of a natural resource over an accounting period that is due to the extraction of the natural resource by economic units occurring at a level greater than that of regeneration (SEEA Central Framework, para. 5.76). Depletion is defined distinctly from ecosystem degradation in that it refers to the decrease in a specific individual environmental asset rather than the decline in the functioning of an ecosystem asset as a whole. Nonetheless there are likely to be close connections between depletion and ecosystem degradation in specific spatial areas. Note that depletion only relates to decreases in natural resources (i.e. it does not cover cultivated biological resources), and does not apply to land (noting that there may be depletion of soil resources, for example through erosion). Depletion may be estimated in monetary terms. See also Ecosystem degradation, Environmental assets, Natural resources, and SEEA Central Framework Section 5.4.2 and Annex A5.1.

    Direct tourism gross domestic product

    Direct tourism gross domestic product (GDP) is Direct tourism gross value added plus net taxes on products that are attributable to the tourism industry (tourism net taxes on products). Direct tourism GDP will generally have a higher value than direct tourism value added.

    Direct tourism gross value added

    Direct tourism gross value added is the value of direct tourism output at basic prices less the value of inputs used in producing these tourism products. This measure is directly comparable with the value added of 'conventional' industries such as mining and manufacturing and should also be used for comparisons across countries.

    Direct tourism output

    Direct tourism output is the value of goods and services at basic prices which are consumed by visitors and produced in Australia by industries in a direct relationship with visitors.

    Discharge

    Amount of water that flows out the river mouth in a period (annually in this publication).

    Domestic tourism consumption

    Domestic tourism consumption consists of the tourism consumption by resident visitors on tourism related products within Australia. It is the sum of household tourism consumption and business and government tourism consumption.

    Economic unit

    An economic unit – referred to as an institutional unit in national accounting – is an economic entity that is capable, in its own right, of owning assets, incurring liabilities, and engaging in economic activities and in transactions with other entities (SNA, 2008, para. 4.2). Institutional units may be either households, or legal or social entities that are recognised independently of the people that own or control them. Groupings of institutional units that are similar in their purposes, objectives and behaviours are defined as institutional sectors. Following SNA, five types of institutional sector are recognised:

    • households
    • non-financial corporations
    • financial corporations
    • general government
    • non-profit institutions serving households.
       

    In the SEEA, financial and non-financial corporations are usually combined, and presented as one sector. An enterprise is the view of an institutional unit as a producer of goods and services. An establishment is an enterprise, or part of an enterprise, that is situated in a single location, and in which only a single productive activity is carried out or in which the principal productive activity accounts for most of the value added. An industry consists of a group of establishments engaged in the same, or similar, kinds of activity. Examples include agriculture, manufacturing, education, finance and retail activity. For more details, see SNA 2008 Chapter 4 and SEEA Central Framework Chapter 2.

    Economically significant price

    An economically significant price is a price which has a significant influence on both the amount producers are willing to supply and the amount purchasers wish to buy.

    Ecosystem accounting units

    Ecosystem accounting units (EAU) are large, mutually exclusive, spatial areas delineated on the basis of the purpose of accounting. Generally, they will reflect a landscape perspective. Factors considered in their delineation include administrative boundaries, environmental management areas, socio-ecological systems and large scale natural features (e.g. river basins) (SEEA, 2012, para. 2.64). A hierarchy of EAUs may be established building from a landscape scale to larger sub-national and national boundaries. At the landscape level, an EAU may be considered to reflect ecosystem assets. It is the highest level of the spatial model used to define areas for the purposes of ecosystem accounting. See also Basic spatial units, Land cover/Ecosystem functional units, and Ecosystem assets.

    Ecosystem assets

    Ecosystem assets are spatial areas containing a combination of biotic and abiotic components and other characteristics that function together (SEEA, 2012, paras. 2.31 & 4.1). An ecosystem asset is defined according to the analysis being conducted. It may be defined as containing a specific combination of ecosystem characteristics (e.g. a tropical rain forest represented by an LCEU), or a variety of combinations (e.g. a river basin containing wetlands, agriculture and settlements represented by an EAU). Ecosystem assets should be distinguished (a) from the various individual components (e.g. plants, animals, soil, water bodies) that are contained within a spatial area; and (b) from other ecosystem characteristics (e.g. biodiversity, resilience). Each of these components and other characteristics may be considered assets in their own right in different contexts and discussions. In the SEEA Central Framework, for example, many individual components are considered individual environmental assets. For ecosystem accounting purposes, the focus is on the functioning system as the asset. The term 'ecosystem assets' has been adopted rather than 'ecosystem capital' because the word 'assets' is more aligned with the terminology employed by the SNA and also conveys better the intention for ecosystem accounting to encompass measurement in both monetary and physical terms. In general, the terms 'ecosystem assets' and 'ecosystem capital' may be considered synonymous. See also Ecosystems, Ecosystem accounting units, Land cover/Ecosystem functional unit, Ecosystem capital, Environmental assets, Natural capital, Natural resources.

    Ecosystem capacity

    The concept of ecosystem capacity is not defined from a measurement perspective in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. It is linked to the general model of ecosystem assets and ecosystem services that is described. In general terms, the concept of ecosystem capacity refers to the ability of a given ecosystem asset to generate a set of ecosystem services in a sustainable way into the future. While this general concept is very relevant to ecosystem assessment, definitive measurement of ecosystem capacity requires the selection of a particular basket of ecosystem services and in this regard measures of ecosystem capacity are more likely to relate to consideration of a range of alternative ecosystem use scenarios than to a single basket of ecosystem services. See also Ecosystem assets, Ecosystem services, Ecosystem condition.

    Ecosystem characteristics

    Ecosystem characteristics relate to the ongoing operation of the ecosystem and its location. Key characteristics of the operation of an ecosystem are its structure, composition, processes and functions. Key characteristics of the location of an ecosystem are its extent, configuration, landscape forms, and climate and associated seasonal patterns. Ecosystem characteristics also relate strongly to biodiversity at a number of levels (see Section 2.1 SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting 2012 for more details). There is no classification of ecosystem characteristics since, while each characteristic may be distinct, they are commonly overlapping. In some situations the use of the generic term, 'characteristics' may seem to be more usefully replaced with terms such as 'components' or 'aspects'. In describing the broader concept of an ecosystem, the use of the term 'characteristics' is intended to encompass all of the various perspectives of an ecosystem. See also Ecosystems, Ecosystem assets, Ecosystem condition.

    Ecosystem condition

    Ecosystem condition reflects the overall quality of an ecosystem asset, in terms of its characteristics (SEEA, 2012, para. 2.34). Measures of ecosystem condition are generally combined with measures of ecosystem extent to provide an overall measure of the state of an ecosystem asset. Ecosystem condition also underpins the capacity of an ecosystem asset to generate ecosystem services and hence changes in ecosystem condition will impact on expected ecosystem service flows. See also Ecosystem assets, Ecosystem characteristics, Ecosystem extent, Expected ecosystem service flows.

    Ecosystem conversion

    Ecosystem conversions reflect changes in the extent or composition of an ecosystem asset from one ecosystem type to another that are considered significant or irreversible (e.g. due to deforestation to create agricultural land) (SEEA, 2012, para. 4.32).

    Ecosystem degradation

    Ecosystem degradation is the decline in an ecosystem asset over an accounting period due to economic and other human activity. It is generally reflected in declines in ecosystem condition and/or declines in expected ecosystem service flows. Measures of ecosystem degradation will be influenced by the scale of analysis, the characteristics of the ecosystem asset, and the expectations regarding the use of the ecosystem asset in the future. Ecosystem degradation may be measured in physical and monetary terms (SEEA, 2012, paras. 4.27-4.32).

    Ecosystem enhancement

    Ecosystem enhancement is the increase and/or improvement in an ecosystem asset that is due to economic and other human activity (SEEA, 2012, para. 4.38).

    Ecosystem extent

    Ecosystem extent refers to the size of an ecosystem asset, commonly in terms of spatial area (SEEA, 2012, para. 2.37). Where an ecosystem asset comprises a number of areas with different combinations of ecosystem characteristics (i.e. the ecosystem asset is a type of ecosystem accounting unit), then ecosystem extent may be measured in terms of the proportion of an area of a specific combination of characteristics to the total area of the ecosystem asset. For example, the extent of wetlands may be 30 per cent of the area of a river basin. See also Ecosystem asset, Ecosystem condition, Ecosystem services.

    Ecosystem or ecological capital

    Ecosystem or ecological capital is not explicitly defined in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. The term 'ecosystem assets' is used instead to refer to the individual spatial areas that are the focus of measurement. In many discussions, the term 'ecosystem capital' relates to a broader concept of the stock providing a foundation for future well-being, together with human, social and produced capital. These various types of capital are regularly brought together in models of sustainable development and wealth accounting. There is no difference between the application of the terms 'capital' and 'assets' in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, and their use in other contexts (e.g. wealth accounting). Some care is needed to understand the potentially different measurement scopes of these types of capital and assets. Specific considerations concern the treatment of mineral and energy resources, and the distinction between natural and cultivated biological resources. See also Ecosystem assets, Environmental assets, Natural capital, Natural resources.

    Ecosystem services

    Ecosystem services are the contributions of ecosystems to benefits used in economic and other human activity (SEEA, 2012, para. 2.23). The definition of ecosystem services in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting involves distinctions between (i) the ecosystem services; (ii) the benefits to which they contribute; and (iii) the well-being which is ultimately affected. Ecosystem services should also be distinguished from the ecosystem characteristics, functions and processes of ecosystem assets. Ecosystem services are defined only when a contribution to a benefit is established. Consequently, the definition of ecosystem services excludes the set of flows commonly referred to as supporting or intermediate services. These flows include intra- and inter-ecosystem flows and the role of ecosystem characteristics that are together reflected in ecosystem processes. A range of terms is used to refer to the concept of ecosystem services defined here. Most common are the terms 'ecosystem goods and services' and 'final ecosystem services'. These two terms highlight particular aspects of the definition above. The first recognises that ecosystem services includes flows of tangible items (e.g. timber, fish, etc.) in addition to intangible services. The second recognises that only those ecosystem services that contribute to a benefit; that is, they are final outputs of the ecosystem – are within scope. Ecosystem services as defined in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting exclude abiotic services and hence do not encompass the complete set of flows from the environment. A complete set of flows from the environment may be reflected in the term 'environmental goods and services'. Three main types of ecosystem services are described: provisioning services, regulating services and cultural services. The Common International Classification for Ecosystem Services (CICES) is an interim classification for ecosystem services. See also Abiotic services, Provisioning services, Regulating services, Cultural services, Intra- and inter-ecosystem flows.

    Ecosystem services input

    A term used to describe the provisioning ecosystem services contribution to productive economic activity. Calculated in this publication using the Resource Rent method.

    Ecosystems

    Ecosystems are defined as 'a dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit' (Convention on Biological Diversity, 2003, Article 2, Use of Terms). They may be identified at different spatial scales, and are commonly nested and overlapping. For accounting purposes, ecosystem assets are defined through the delineation of specific and mutually exclusive spatial areas. See also Ecosystem assets, Ecosystem accounting units, and Land cover/Ecosystem functional units.

    Employee income

    An employee's total remuneration, whether monetary or in kind, received as a return to labour from an employer or from a person's own incorporated business. It comprises wages and salaries, bonuses, amounts salary sacrificed, non-cash benefits such as the use of motor vehicles and subsidised housing (where valued over a certain threshold), and termination payments. Employee income usually includes all employer social contributions. However, many components of this income are not reported on the Personal Income Tax (PIT) dataset and hence are not included in this publication.

    End-of-pipe

    End-of-pipe (pollution treatment) technologies are mainly technical installations and equipment produced for measurements, control, treatment and restoration/correction of pollution, environmental degradation, and/or resource depletion, (SEEA, 2012, para 4.102).

    Environmental assets

    Environmental assets are the naturally occurring living and non-living components of the Earth. Together they constitute the bio-physical environment, which may provide benefits to humanity (SEEA Central Framework, para. 2.17). This definition of environmental assets is intended to be broad and encompassing. As explained in the SEEA Central Framework, the measurement of environmental assets can be considered from two perspectives. The first perspective relates to individual components (i.e. individual environmental assets providing materials and space to all economic activities). Examples include land, soil, water, timber, aquatic, and mineral and energy resources. The second perspective relates to environmental assets from the perspective of ecosystems. The scope of environmental assets includes mineral and energy resources, which are excluded from the scope of ecosystem assets. For this reason, environmental assets are not the same as ecosystem assets. Also, the scope of environmental assets is broader than natural resources as it includes produced assets such as cultivated crops and plants (including timber and orchards), livestock, and fish in aquaculture facilities. In the SEEA Central Framework, the measurement scope of environmental assets is broader in physical terms than in monetary terms, because the boundary in monetary terms is limited to those assets that have an economic value in monetary terms following the market valuation principles of the SNA. See also Ecosystem assets, Natural resources, and SEEA Central Framework Chapter 5.

    Environmental goods and services sector

    The Environmental goods and services sector (EGSS) consists of producers of all environmental goods and services, including environmental-specific services environmental sole-purpose products and services, adapted goods and environmental technologies (SEEA, 2012, para 4.95-4.102).

    Environmental protection activities

    Environmental protection activities are those activities whose primary purpose is the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution and other forms of degradation of the environment, SEEA, 2012, para 4.12.

    Environmental sole-purpose products

    Environmental sole-purpose products are goods (durables or non-durable) or services whose use directly serves an environmental protection or resource management purpose and that have no use except for environmental protection or resource management (SEEA, 2012, para 4.98).

    Environmental specific services

    Environmental specific services are environmental protection and resource management specific services produced by economic units for sale or own use (SEEA, 2012, para 4.96).

    Environmental technologies

    Environmental technologies are technical processes, installations and equipment (goods), and methods or knowledge (services) whose technical nature or purpose is environmental protection or resource management, (SEEA, 2012, para 4.102)

    Eutrophication

    Eutrophication is the enrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or both. Eutrophication can be a natural process in lakes, occurring as they age through geological time. It is also known as hypertrophication, which is the ecosystem response to the addition of artificial or natural substances, mainly phosphates, through detergents, fertilisers, or sewage, to an aquatic system. One example is the 'bloom' or great increase of phytoplankton in a water body as a response to increased levels of nutrients. Negative environmental effects include hypoxia, the depletion of oxygen in the water, which may cause death to aquatic animals.

    Exchange value

    Exchange value reflects the actual outlays/revenue for all quantities of a product that are transacted. It is equal to the market price multiplied by the quantity transacted. It assumes that all purchasers pay (and producers receive) the same price on average, and hence excludes consumer surplus. Exchange values are those that underpin national and business accounting frameworks as they can be estimated based on observed transactions (SEEA, 2012, para. 5.21). See also Market price, Consumer surplus.

    Expected ecosystem service flow

    Expected ecosystem service flow is an aggregate measure of future ecosystem service flows from an ecosystem asset for a given basket of ecosystem services (SEEA, 2012, para. 2.39). In general terms, the measure of expected ecosystem service flows is an assessment of the capacity of an ecosystem asset to generate ecosystem services in the future. However, the focus is on the generation of a specific, expected combination of ecosystem services (the given basket) which may or may not be able to be produced on a sustainable basis. Thus the measure is not necessarily reflective of sustainable or optimal scenarios of future ecosystem asset use. At the same time the expectations of future ecosystem service flows must be informed by likely changes in ecosystem condition, noting that the relationship between condition and ecosystem service flow is likely to be complex and non-linear. See also Ecosystem services, Ecosystem asset, Ecosystem condition.

    Final ecosystem services

    See Ecosystem services.

    Finfish

    Finfish are fish that are harvested in fisheries. The term is used to differentiate true fish from shellfish.

    Geocarbon

    Geocarbon is carbon stored in the geosphere and can be disaggregated into: oil, gas, coal resources, rocks (primarily limestone) and minerals (e.g. carbonate rocks used in cement production, methane clathrates and marine sediments) (SEEA, 2012, para. 4.97).

    Gross domestic product (GDP)

    Gross domestic product (GDP) is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. GDP is measured at current or 'market' prices. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services.

    Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)

    Expenditure on new fixed assets plus net expenditure on second-hand fixed assets, including both additions and or replacements. Expenditure on repair and maintenance of fixed assets is excluded, being chargeable to the production account. Compensation of employees and other costs paid by corporations in connection with own-account capital formation are included.

    Gross mixed income (GMI)

    Gross mixed income (GMI) is the surplus or deficit accruing from production by unincorporated enterprises. GMI includes elements of both compensation of employees (returns on labour inputs) and operating surplus (returns on capital inputs).

    Gross operating surplus (GOS)

    Gross operating surplus is the operating surplus accruing to all enterprises, except unincorporated enterprises, from their operations in Australia. It is the excess of gross output over the sum of intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, and taxes less subsidies on production and imports. It is calculated before deduction of consumption of fixed capital, dividends, interest, royalties and land rent, and direct taxes payable, but after deducting the inventory valuation adjustment. Gross operating surplus is also calculated for general government, and equals consumption of fixed capital for that sector.

    Gross payments to employees

    Gross payments to employes are the dollar amounts recorded (by businesses) on the Individual Pay As You Go (PAYG) summary for each job.

    Gross primary productivity (GPP)

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the rate of gain of carbon in leaves, stems, and roots by photosynthesis.

    Gross state product (GSP)

    Gross state product is defined equivalently to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) but refers to production within a state or territory rather than to the nation as a whole. See Gross domestic product.

    Gross value added (GVA)

    Gross value added is the value of output at basic prices minus the value of intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. The term is used to describe gross product by industry and by sector. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in the incidence of commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.

    Hours worked

    The hours worked by all labour engaged in the production of goods and services, including hours worked by civilian wage and salary earners, employers, self-employed persons, persons working one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm, and members of the Australian defence forces.

    Hypertrophication

    See Eutrophication.

    Indigenous cultural services

    Indigenous cultural services are the intellectual and symbolic benefits that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples obtain from ecosystems through recreation, knowledge development, relaxation, and spiritual reflection.

    Individual environmental assets

    see Environmental assets.

    Industry

    An industry consists of a group of establishments engaged in the same, or similar, kinds of activity. Industry is defined with the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0). The structure of ANZSIC comprises four levels, ranging from industry division (broadest level) to industry class (finest level).

    Input-Output industry group (IOIG)

    Input-Output industry group (IOIG) is based on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC). Input-Output (I-O) tables are published at this level of industry.

    Input-Output product classification (IOPC)

    Input-Output product classification (IOPC) is the detailed level product classification, organised according to the industry to which each product is primary. I-O tables are compiled at this level of product classification.

    Input-Output product group (IOPG)

    Input-Output product group (IOPG) is a group of IOPCs aggregated to the IOIG to which they are primary. I-O tables are published at this level of product classification.

    Input-Output tables

    Input-Output tables are a means of presenting a detailed analysis of the process of production and the use of goods and services (products) and the income generated in the production process. They can be either in the form of (a) supply and use tables or (b) symmetric input and output tables.

    Institutional sectors

    The resident units that make up the total economy are grouped into four mutually exclusive institutional sectors; namely, the non-financial corporations sector; the financial corporations sector; the general government sector; and the household sector, which includes residential households, unincorporated enterprises and non-profit institutions serving households in the Australian System of National Accounts.

    Institutional unit

    An economic entity that is capable, in its own right, of owning assets, incurring liabilities, engaging in economic activities and engaging in transactions with other entities.

    Integrated technologies

    Integrated technologies are technical processes, methods or knowledge used in production processes that are less polluting and less resource-intensive than the equivalent “normal” technology used by other national producers. Their use is less environmentally harmful than relevant alternatives (SEEA, 2012, para 4.102).

    Intermediate ecosystem services

    See Ecosystem services, Intra- and inter-ecosystem flows.

    Intermediate usage

    Intermediate usage consists of the value of the goods and services used as inputs by a process of production, excluding compensation of employees and the consumption of fixed capital. Intermediate usage can also be defined as intermediate consumption.

    Internal tourism consumption

    Internal tourism consumption consists of all tourism consumption of visitors within Australia, both resident and non-resident. It is the sum of domestic tourism consumption and international tourism consumption.

    International tourism consumption

    International tourism consumption consists of the tourism consumption with Australia by non-residents on tourism related products. It is also referred to as internal tourism consumption by international visitors.

    Intra- and inter-ecosystem flows

    The flows in ecosystem accounting are of two types. First, there are flows within and between ecosystem assets that reflect ongoing ecosystem processes – these are referred to as intra-ecosystem flows and inter-ecosystem flows. The recognition of inter-ecosystem flows highlights the dependencies between different ecosystem assets (e.g. wetlands are dependent on flows of water from further up the river basin). Second, there are flows reflecting that people, through economic and other human activity, take advantage of the multitude of resources and processes that are generated by ecosystem assets – collectively these flows are known as ecosystem services (SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting 2012, paras. 2.13-2.14).

    Labour force status

    A classification of the civilian population aged 15 years and over into employed, unemployed or not in the labour force, as defined. The definitions conform closely to the international standard definitions adopted by the International Conferences of Labour Statisticians.

    Land

    Land consists of the ground, including the soil covering and any associated surface waters, over which ownership rights are enforced and from which economic benefits can be derived by their owners by holding or using them.

    Land cover

    Land cover refers to the observed physical and biological cover of the Earth’s surface and includes natural vegetation, abiotic (non-living) surfaces and inland water bodies such as rivers, lakes and reservoirs (SEEA Central Framework, para. 5.257).

    Land cover/ecosystem functional unit

    A land cover/ecosystem functional unit (LCEU) is defined, in most terrestrial areas, by areas satisfying a pre-determined set of factors relating to the characteristics of an ecosystem. Examples of factors include land cover type, water resources, and soil type (SEEA, 2012, para. 2.56). LCEU may be considered to represent ecosystem assets and LCEU may often reflect the common conception of ecosystems (e.g. forests, wetlands, deserts, etc.). Generally, LCEU represents the middle level of the model that is used to define areas for the purposes of ecosystem accounting. An ecosystem accounting unit (reflecting a landscape perspective) will generally have a number of different LCEU types. See also Basic spatial units, Ecosystem accounting units, Ecosystem assets.

    Macroalgae

    Macroalgae is a collective term used for seaweeds and other benthic (attached to the bottom) marine algae that are generally visible to the naked eye. Larger macroalgae are also referred to as seaweeds, although they are not really 'weeds'. In this report, macroalgae are treated as marine plants because they are photosynthetic (convert sunlight into food) and have similar ecological roles to other plants. However, macroalgae differ from other marine plants such as seagrasses and mangroves in that macroalgae lack roots, leafy shoots, flowers, and vascular tissues. They are distinguished from microalgae (e.g. diatoms, phytoplankton, and the zooxanthellae that live in coral tissue), which require a microscope to be observed.

    Market output

    Market output is output that is sold at prices that are economically significant or otherwise disposed of on the market, or intended for sale or disposal on the market.

    Market prices

    Market prices are the amounts of money that willing buyers pay to acquire goods, services or assets from willing sellers (SNA, 2008, para. 3.119). For more detail, see the SEEA Central Framework Section 2.7, and 2008 SNA Chapter 6. See also Exchange values.

    Natural capital

    The term 'natural capital' is not defined in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. It commonly refers to all types of environmental assets as defined in the SEEA Central Framework. Natural capital has a broader scope than ecosystem assets, as defined in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, because it includes mineral and energy resources. Generally, natural capital incorporates broad notions of the set of services from ecosystems in line with the accounting for ecosystem assets described in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. In this regard, although aligned in bio-physical terms, natural capital may be considered a broader measure than the measures of environmental assets that are described in the SEEA Central Framework which are limited to consideration of material/SNA benefits. It is noted that while natural capital would usually incorporate all ecosystem assets there is ample evidence to indicate that very few, if any, ecosystems are uninfluenced by humans and hence there are few ecosystem assets that might be considered purely 'natural'. See Benefits, Ecosystem capital, Ecosystem assets, Environmental assets, Natural resources.

    Natural resource management (NRM) regions

    Natural resource management regions are administrative regions primarily used to report on the Australian Government's Caring for our Country investments but are also used for environmental and agricultural reporting. They are based on catchments or bioregions. The boundaries of NRM regions are managed by the Commonwealth Department of Environment. NRM regions change occasionally as States and Territories revise their boundaries.
     

    Natural resources

    In the SEEA Central Framework, natural resources include all natural biological resources (including timber and aquatic resources); mineral and energy resources; soil and water resources (see para. 5.18). In this definition, land is a distinct type of environmental asset, and is not considered to be a natural resource (see SEEA Central Framework, paras. 5.19-5.23). In the System of National Accounts, natural resources are defined as non-produced non-financial assets, consisting of land; mineral and energy resources; native standing timber; and radio spectra. Natural resources are defined in both the SEEA and SNA to include only non-produced environmental assets; that is, they are not considered to have come into existence as outputs of processes that fall within the production boundary of the SNA. A distinction is thus made between 'natural' and 'cultivated' environmental assets. See also Environmental assets, Ecosystem assets and Natural capital.

    Net operating surplus (NOS)

    Net operating surplus equals gross operating surplus less consumption of fixed capital.

    Net primary productivity (NPP)

    Net primary productivity is defined as the net flux of carbon from the atmosphere into green plants per unit time. NPP is a fundamental ecological variable. It measures the energy input into the biosphere and terrestrial carbon dioxide assimilation, and also indicates the condition of the land surface area and status of a wide range of ecological processes.

    Non-market output

    Non-market output consists of goods and services produced by any institutional unit that are supplied free or at prices that are not economically significant.

    Non-produced assets

    Non-produced assets are non-financial assets that come into existence other than through processes of production. Non-produced assets are assets that occur in nature and where ownership has been enforced or transferred. Environmental assets over which ownership rights have not, or cannot, be enforced, such as international waters or air space, are excluded. They consist of natural resources (such as land, mineral and energy resources, native standing timber and radio spectra); contracts, leases and licences; and purchased goodwill and marketing assets. Purchased goodwill and marketing assets are not included in the Australian System of National Accounts.

    Occupation

    An occupation is a collection of jobs that are sufficiently similar in their title and tasks, skill level and skill specialisation which are grouped together for the purposes of classification. Occupation in this publication refers to the classification, at various levels of detail, as defined by the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, First Edition, Revision 1, Revision 1 (cat. no. 1292.0) of the job which the employee identifies as their 'Main Wage or Salary Job'.

    Other subsidies on production

    Other subsidies on production consists of all subsidies, except subsidies on products, which resident enterprises may receive as a consequence of engaging in production. Other subsidies on production include: subsidies related to the payroll or workforce numbers, including subsidies payable on the total wage or salary bill, on numbers employed, or on the employment of particular types of persons (e.g. persons with disabilities or persons who have been unemployed for a long period).

    Other taxes on production

    Other taxes on production consists of all taxes that enterprises incur as a result of engaging in production, except taxes on products. Other taxes on production include: taxes related to the payroll or workforce numbers excluding compulsory social security contributions paid by employers and any taxes paid by the employees themselves out of their wages or salaries; recurrent taxes on land, buildings or other structures; some business and professional licences where no service is provided by the government in return; taxes on the use of fixed assets or other activities; stamp duties; taxes on pollution; and taxes on international transactions.

    Outbound tourism consumption

    Outbound tourism consumption consists of the tourism consumption by resident visitors outside of Australia while on an international trip. It is also referred to as tourism imports.

    Output

    Output consists of those goods and services that are produced within an establishment that become available for use outside that establishment, plus any goods and services produced for own final use.

    Output for own final use

    Output for own final use includes output for own final consumption and output for own gross fixed capital formation.

    Payments for ecosystem services

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are generally defined as voluntary and conditional transactions over well-defined ecosystem services between at least one supplier and one user (SEEA, 2012, para. 6.18).

    Photosystem II inhibiting herbicides

    Photosystem II inhibiting herbicides (PSII) are classes of chemicals whose primary mechanism of action is to block photosynthetic functions; these comprise more than half of all currently utilised herbicides. Of major importance as photosynthesis inhibitors are the chemical groups of ureas, amides, triazines, triazinones, pyridazinones, carbamates and nitrophenols. These compounds all share the common feature that they block photosystem II-dependent Hill-reactions (or PSII inhibitors).

    Primary incomes

    Primary incomes consist of incomes that accrue to institutional units as a consequence of their involvement in processes of production or their ownership of assets that may be needed for the purposes of production. They are payable out of the value added created by production. The primary incomes that accrue by lending or renting financial or non-produced non-financial natural resource assets, including land, to other units for use in production are described as 'property incomes'. Receipts from taxes on production and imports are treated as primary incomes of governments even though not all of them may be recorded as payable out of the value added of enterprises. Primary incomes exclude social contributions and benefits, current taxes on income, wealth, etc. and other current transfers. They include gross operating surplus, compensation of employees and gross mixed income.

    Produced assets

    Produced assets are non-financial assets that have come into existence as outputs from production processes. Produced assets consist of fixed assets, inventories and valuables. However, valuables are not included in the Australian System of National Accounts.

    Provisioning services

    Provisioning services reflect contributions to the benefits produced by or in the ecosystem, for example a fish, or a plant with pharmaceutical properties. The associated benefits may be provided in agricultural systems, as well as within semi-natural and natural ecosystems (SEEA, 2012, para. 3.4(i)). See also Ecosystem services, Regulating services, Cultural services, Recreational services.

    Purchaser's price

    The purchasers' price is the amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser's price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place. Purchasers' prices are also known as current prices.

    Regulating services

    Regulating services result from the capacity of ecosystems to regulate climate, hydrological and bio-chemical cycles, earth surface processes, and a variety of biological processes (SEEA, 2012 para. 3.4(ii)). Regulating services are also commonly referred to as 'regulation and maintenance services'. These two terms are synonymous in the context of the definition of ecosystem services used in SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. See also Ecosystem services, Provisioning services, Cultural services.

    Relative standard error (RSE)

    A Standard Error (SE) measure indicates the extent to which a survey estimate is likely to deviate from the true population and is expressed as a number. The Relative Standard Error is the standard error expressed as a fraction of the estimate and is usually displayed as a percentage. Estimates with a RSE of 25 per cent or greater are subject to high sampling error and should be used with caution. The reliability of estimates can also be assessed in terms of a confidence interval. Confidence intervals represent the range in which the population value is likely to lie. They are constructed using the estimate of the population value and its associated standard error. For example, there is approximately a 95% chance (i.e. 19 chances in 20) that the population value lies within two standard errors of the estimates, so the 95% confidence interval is equal to the estimate plus or minus two standard errors (Literacy Stats, ABS website).

    Resource rent

    Resource rent is a component of economic rent, specifically representing the rent of a natural resource that is extracted or used by a company or industry. It is derived from standard SNA measures of gross operating surplus by deducting specific subsidies, adding back specific taxes and deducting the user costs of produced assets (itself composed of consumption of fixed capital and the return to produced assets). Resource rent is composed of depletion and the net return to non-produced (environmental) assets. This publication also estimates an analogous 'tourism rent' value for non-produced tourism assets which are not exclusively environmental assets.

    Return to produced assets

    The return to produced assets is a component of gross operating surplus. Return to produced assets is calculated by multiplying the selected rate of return by net capital stock. Rates of return can be general interest rates such as a long term government bond rate or a known interest rate specific to the business or industry in question.

    Species abundance

    Species abundance is a measure of the absolute number of a particular species in an area.

    Species richness

    Species richness is a measure of the number of different species in an area.

    Subsidies on products

    Subsidies on products are subsidies payable per unit of a good or service. The subsidy may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service (quantity being measured either in terms of discrete units or continuous physical variables such as volume, weight, strength, distance, time, etc.), or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit. A subsidy may also be calculated as the difference between a specified target price and the market price actually paid by a purchaser. A subsidy on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a product is exported, leased, transferred, delivered or used for own consumption or own capital formation.

    Supply and use tables

    Supply and use tables are matrices that record how supplies of different kinds of goods and services originate from domestic industries and imports, and how those supplies are allocated between various intermediate or final uses, including exports.

    System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA)

    The central framework of the System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) is an international statistical standard for environmental-economic accounts ('environmental accounts'). It is a multipurpose conceptual framework for understanding the interactions between the economy and the environment, and for describing stocks and changes in stocks of environmental assets. It is consistent with the SNA.

    System of National Accounts (SNA)

    The System of National Accounts is a statistical framework that provides a comprehensive, consistent and flexible set of macroeconomic accounts for policymaking, analysis and research purposes. It has been produced and is released under the auspices of the United Nations, the European Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Australian System of National Accounts (ASNA) is based on the 2008 edition of SNA (2008 SNA), which is the current international standard.

    Taxes less subsidies on production and imports

    Defined as taxes on products plus other taxes on production less subsidies on products less other subsidies on production.

    Taxes on production and imports

    This category consists of taxes on products and other taxes on production. It does not include any taxes on the profits or other income received by an enterprise. These taxes are payable irrespective of the profitability of the production process. They may be payable on the land, fixed assets or labour employed in the production process, or on certain activities or transactions. A tax on a product usually becomes payable when it is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a good is exported, leased, transferred, delivered, or used for own consumption or own capital formation (see Chapter 7 of 2008 SNA for more details).

    Taxes on products

    Taxes on products are taxes payable per unit of quantity of a good or service. The tax may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service (quantity being measured either in terms of discrete units or continuous physical variables such as volume, weight, strength, distance, time, etc.), or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit or value of the goods or services transacted. A tax on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a good is exported, leased, transferred, delivered, or used for own consumption or own capital formation.

    Total nitrogen (TN)

    Total nitrogen (TN) is an essential nutrient for plants and animals. An excess amount of nitrogen in a waterway may lead to low levels of dissolved oxygen, and negatively alter various plant life and organisms. Sources of nitrogen include: wastewater treatment plants; runoff from fertilised lawns and crop areas; failing septic systems; runoff from animal manure and storage areas; and industrial discharges that contain corrosion inhibitors.

    Total phosphorus (TP)

    Total phosphorus (TP) is defined as compounds that give rise to phosphate ions. This is a very broad group including many natural and anthropogenic substances, either containing phosphate or decomposing into it. These compounds include salts such as trisodium phosphate, calcium hydroxyapatite, polyphosphates and organophosphates. The vast number and variety of molecular structures making up organic chemistry (that is, compounds based on carbon atoms) is mirrored in the chemistry of compounds based on phosphorus. This variety is based on the orthophosphates and the long-chain polyphosphates, compounds in which phosphate groups are linked by oxygen.

    Total suspended solids (TSS)

    Total suspended solids (TSS) is a water quality measurement. TSS measures the mass of fine inorganic particles suspended in the water.

    Tourism

    Tourism comprises the activities of visitors.

    Tourism characteristic industries

    Tourism characteristic industries are those industries that would either cease to exist in their present form, producing their present products, or would be significantly affected if tourism were to cease. Under the international Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) standards, core lists of tourism characteristic industries, based on the significance of their link to tourism in the worldwide context, are recommended for implementation to facilitate international comparison. In the Australian TSA, an industry is deemed to be a country-specific tourism characteristic industry when at least 25 per cent of its output is consumed by visitors.

    Tourism consumption

    Tourism consumption consists of tourism expenditure plus imputed consumption by resident and non-resident visitors on tourism related products, including those sold at prices that are not economically significant.

    Tourism expenditure

    Tourism expenditure consists of the amount paid by a visitor or on behalf of a visitor for and during his/her trip and stay at the destination.

    Tourism rent

    Resource rent calculated for tourism economic activity. Unlike in cases such as Agriculture and Fisheries, the resource rent for tourism is not considered to solely identify an ecosystem services input.

    Visitor

    A visitor is defined as any person taking a trip to a main destination outside his/her usual environment, for less than a year, for any main purpose (business, leisure or other personal purpose) other than to be employed by a resident entity in the country or place visited.

    Wages and salaries

    Wages and salaries consist of amounts payable in cash (including the value of any social contributions, income taxes, fringe benefits tax, etc.) payable by the employee even if they are actually withheld by the employer for administrative convenience or other reasons and paid directly to third parties (such as social insurance schemes, tax authorities, etc.), on behalf of the employee. Wages and salaries may be paid as remuneration in kind instead of, or in addition to, remuneration in cash. Separation, termination and redundancy payments are also included in wages and salaries.

    Quality declaration

    This publication should be considered experimental, as improvements to methods and new data sources continue to become available. The ABS will be seeking input from key stakeholders with the intention of addressing issues and concerns in future updates.

    Institutional environment

    The publication has been compiled entirely from previously collected information, both from ABS and non-ABS sources. These sources have been used to estimate the extent of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) ecosystem, its condition and ecosystem services generated. Data have been presented in a framework following the recommendations of the internationally accepted System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 - Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EEA).

    In some cases existing ABS data have been directly used in this publication. However, in many cases existing ABS data have been modelled to achieve the geographical and conceptual characteristics required for an ecosystem account for the GBR. For example, food provisioning services provided by the GBR have been modelled using sub-state information available from the ABS Agricultural Census.

    A wide range of non-ABS data sources have been used in this publication, particularly for measuring biophysical aspects of the GBR. Examples of these data sources include the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Coastal Ecosystems Assessment Framework 2012, the Department of the Environment and Energy National Inventory Report Volume 2 and Geoscience Australia Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD) v2.1. The ABS has worked with the relevant data authors to best integrate these data sources into an accounting framework reflecting the principles of SEEA EEA.

    For information on the institutional environment of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), including the legislative obligations of the ABS, financing and governance arrangements, and mechanisms for scrutiny of ABS operations, please see ABS Institutional Environment.

    Relevance

    The standards governing environmental-economic accounting ('environmental accounts') are agreed internationally and are described in the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA). The SEEA is endorsed by six key international economic and environmental organisations: the European Commission; the Food and Agriculture Organisation; the International Monetary Fund; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; the United Nations; and the World Bank.

    The framework and associated accounts described in the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 - Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EEA) are a crucial complement to the conceptual framework and accounts presented in the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting. SEEA-EEA, however, is not an international standard for ecosystem accounts. The framework has been drafted by the European Commission, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Statistical Commission and World Bank. It is consistent with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting and the 2008 System of National Accounts (2008 SNA).

    The Experimental Ecosystem Account for the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Region is designed to highlight the interaction between terrestrial and marine economic activities (which rely on ecosystems), and the condition of the environment in which these activities are undertaken. This publication builds upon the earlier ABS Information Paper: An Experimental Ecosystem Account for the Great Barrier Reef Region, 2015 (cat. no. 4680.0.55.001) and seeks to generate feedback from key stakeholders to extend and improve future accounts. This publication also serves to connect some of the large body of scientific work currently being undertaken in the region to environmental and macro-economic indicator accounts compiled by the ABS.

    Timeliness

    Estimates contained in the experimental ecosystem accounts are largely presented on a financial year basis, however some data are presented on a calendar year basis due to data availability. The estimates relate to a range of ecosystem themes. Some of the estimates are sourced from well-developed data production systems, while other sources have only recently been developed. As a result, some of the data contained in this account are more timely than others. The bulk of the reporting in this publication has financial years 2014-15 and 2015-16 as the most recent reporting period and the ecosystem accounts is being released 14 months after the reference period 2015-16.

    Accuracy

    Accuracy remains the main focus of ABS quality management. In the case of ecosystem accounts, it is recognised internationally that an objective accuracy measure, in the sense of proximity to a 'true value', is near-impossible to measure. The ecosystem account is a complex set of environmental and economic statistics. It combines a large number of ABS and non-ABS data sources covering various aspects of the environment and the economy to derive a number of statistical tables, including various headline measures.

    The ecosystem account compilation process transforms a range of data into sets of environmental accounts. A number of integrated measures are produced, including ecosystem contribution (resource rent) measures designed to assess the value or benefit derived from various ecosystem services. Typically, the production of these integrated measures requires adjustments to underlying data in order to ensure a consistent conceptual basis to the data. These adjustments involve the use of various methods, data and assumptions. Further information on these is included in the Explanatory Notes to this publication.

    This publication uses water quality data as included in the Great Barrier Reef Report Card prepared by the Queensland and Australian governments. The Queensland government is currently working to improve this water quality information and these improvements are expected to be delivered in September 2017. The data contained in this ABS release are the latest available at the time of publication.

    Given the variety of data used, and the adjustments/transformations undertaken in the compilation of the ecosystem account, an overall assessment of accuracy is necessarily subjective. It involves an assessment of underlying data, the adjustments and transformations made including assumptions used. The ABS aims to achieve best practice in each of these facets of ecosystem account compilation.

    Coherence

    A key characteristic of environmental accounting, especially in comparison with other types of environmental information, is its coherence, both among the various items of environmental information and with related economic accounts. The GBR Region is the first region within Australia for which the ABS has compiled ecosystem accounts, and compilation is in accordance with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) framework. This release presents estimates of ecosystems services for the key industries of the Great Barrier Reef Region, as well as for related areas such as biodiversity.

    An accounting framework such as the SEEA differs from a set of environmental indicators. Many sets of environmental indicators are appropriate for their designed purpose but cannot readily be integrated with other environmental information or with economic information, limiting their potential usefulness and limiting the capacity to assess data quality. The ecosystem account in contrast is based on the principles and structures of the SEEA, and represents a cohesive, integrated set of environmental and economic information.

    This account makes use of Input-Output tables from the Australian System of National Accounts (ASNA) to derive ecosystem service (resource rent) measures. National level data from the Australian System of National Accounts (cat. no. 5204.0) and Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (cat. no. 5249.0) have been broken down to a regional level using proxy data items for regional activity in tourism and in agriculture. For food provisioning services, the proxy item for splitting national data to Natural Resource Management Regions was the gross value of agricultural production. This was derived from ABS Agricultural Survey and ABS Agricultural Census (see ABS cat. no 7111.0).

    Interpretability

    The ecosystem account provides analysis and commentary in each section of the publication. The account uses commentary, tables and maps to guide reader understanding and interpretation of detailed data tables. The Explanatory Notes to this release provide further guidance on the data used in this account, along with links to supporting environmental and economic accounts publications for further information on concepts, methodologies and data sources.

    The interpretation of environmental accounts is assisted by an understanding of the policy context in which these data are used. This is further elaborated in ABS Completing the Picture: Environmental Accounting in Practice (cat. no. 4628.0.55.001).

    Accessibility

    Data cubes, analysis and commentary from Experimental Environmental-Economic Accounts for the Great Barrier Reef Region, 2017 are available on the ABS website.

    If the information you require is not available as a standard product or service, the ABS Consultancy Services can assist with customised services to suit your requirements. Inquiries should be made to the ABS Information Centre on 1300 135 070.

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    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Coral Bleaching Fact Sheet, May 2017 http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/252385/GBRMPACoralBleaching_FactSheet_Updated5May2017.pdf

    Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority 2017, Assessing the changes to ecological processes for the Great Barrier Reef: Ecological Process Calculator, GBRMPA, Townsville. (unpublished)

    International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/introduction

    Jon Brodie, Jane Waterhouse, Britta Schaffelke, Frederieke Kroon, Peter Thorburn, John Rolfe, Jo Johnson, Katharina Fabricius, Stephen Lewis, Michelle Devlin, Michael Warne, Len McKenzie, 2013 Scientific Consensus Statement Land use impacts on Great Barrier Reef water quality and ecosystem condition, Independent Science Panel: Roger Shaw, Eva Abal, Mike Grundy, Peter Doherty, Neil Byron, published by the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan Secretariat http://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/about/scientific-consensus-statement/

    Joo, M., Raymond, M.A.A., McNeil, V.H., Huggins, R., Turner, R.D.R. & S. Choy (2012) 'Estimates of sediment and nutrient loads in 10 major catchments draining to the Great Barrier Reef during 2006–2009', Marine Pollution Bulletin, Number 65, pp.150-166.

    Kroon, F.J., Kuhnert, P.M., Henderson, B.L., Wilkinson, S.N., Kinsey-Henderson, A., Abbott, B., Brodie, J.E., & R.D.R. Turner (2012) 'River loads of suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and herbicides delivered to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon', Marine Pollution Bulletin, Number 65, pp.167-181.

    Marine Monitoring Program (MMP), a collaboration of GBRMPA, CSIRO, James Cook University, the University of Queensland and Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS).

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    Turner, R., Huggins, R., Wallace, R., Smith, R., Vardy, S. & M. Warne (2013) Total suspended solids, nutrient and pesticide loads (2010-2011) for rivers that discharge to the Great Barrier Reef Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2010-2011. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts (DSITIA).

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    Wallace, R., Huggins, R., Smith, R., Turner, R., A. Garzon-Garcia & M. Warne (2014) Total suspended solids, nutrient and pesticide loads (2012–2013) for rivers that discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring Program 2012–2013. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts (DSITIA).

    Wallace, R., Huggins, R., Smith, R., Turner, R., A. Garzon-Garcia & M. Warne (2015) Total suspended solids, nutrient and pesticide loads (2012–2013) for rivers that discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring Program 2012–2013. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts (DSITIA).

    Wallace, R., Huggins, R., Smith, R., Turner, R., Vardy, S. & M. Warne (2014) Total suspended solids, nutrient and pesticide loads (2011–2012) for rivers that discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring Program 2011–2012. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts (DSITIA).

    Wooldridge SA, Brodie JE. (2015). Environmental triggers for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 101(2): 805-815

    Abbreviations

    Show all

    -Nil
    $Dollars
    $mMillion dollars
    %Percent
    °CDegrees Celsius
    '000Thousands
    2008 SNA2008 (Edition of) System of National Accounts
    ABARESAustralian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences
    ABRAustralian Business Register
    ABSAustralian Bureau of Statistics
    ABSBRAustralian Bureau of Statistics Business Register
    AEEAAustralian Environmental Economic Accounts
    AIATSISAustralian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
    AIMSAustralian Institute of Marine Science
    ALAAtlas of Living Australia
    ALUMAustralian Land Use and Management
    ANZSCOAustralia and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations
    ANZSIC06Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 2006
    ASCOVAAustralian Standard Classification of Visitor Accommodation
    ASDIAustralian Spatial Data Infrastructure
    ASFISAquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System
    ASGSAustralian Statistical Geography Standard
    ASNAAustralian System of National Accounts
    ATOAustralian Tax Office
    AVPCCAustralian Valuation Property Classification Codes
    bBillion
    BoMBureau of Meteorology
    BSUBasic Spatial Unit
    CAPSTKCapital Stock System
    CBDConvention on Biological Diversity
    CDOMColour Dissolved Organic Matter
    CEAClassification of Environmental Activities
    CESCentre of Environment Statistics
    CICESCommon International Classification of Ecosystem Services
    Cl-aChlorophyll-a concentration
    CLUMCatchment Scale Land Use Mapping
    COFCConsumption of Fixed Capital
    COTSCrown-of-thorns Starfish
    CPCCentral Product Classification
    CPUECatch per Unit Effort
    CSIROCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
    CWPCo-ordinating Working Party on Fisheries Statistics
    DLCDDynamic Land Cover Dataset
    DoEEDepartment of the Environment and Energy
    DSITIQueensland Department of Science Information Technology and Innovation
    EAUEcosystem Accounting Unit
    ECEuropean Commission
    EEAEuropean Environment Agency
    EESGEconomic and Environmental Statistics Group
    EEZExclusive Economic Zone
    EGSEnvironmental Goods and Services
    EGSSEnvironmental Goods and Services Sector
    EMCEnvironment Management Charge
    EPBC(Commonwealth) Environmental Protection Biodiversity Conservation (Act 1999)
    EVAOEstimated Value of Agricultural Operations
    FAOFood and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
    FRA(Global) Forest Resource Assessment
    g m-3grams per cubic metre
    GAGeoscience Australia
    GBIFGlobal Biodiversity Information Facility
    GBRGreat Barrier Reef
    GBRMPAGreat Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
    GDPGross Domestic Product
    GFCFGross Fixed Capital Formation
    GISGeographic Information Systems
    GLGigalitres
    GMIGross Mixed Income
    GOSGross Operating Surplus
    GOSMIGross Operating Surplus and Mixed Income
    GPPGross Primary Productivity
    GSPGross State Product
    GtGigatonnes
    GVAGross Value Added
    GVIAPGross Value of Irrigated Agricultural Production
    haHectares
    IMFInternational Monetary Fund
    I-OInput-Output
    IOIGInput Output Industry Group
    IOPCInput Output Product Classification
    IOPGInput Output Product Group
    IPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    ISCAAPInternational Standard Classification for Aquatic Animals and Plants
    ISICInternational Standard Industrial Classification for All Economic Activities
    ITRIndividual Tax Return
    IUCNInternational Union for the Conservation of Nature
    IVSInternational Visitors Survey
    kgKilogram
    kg/km-2Kilograms per square kilometre
    km²Square kilometres
    LCCSLand Cover Classification System
    LCCS 3Land Cover Classification System (version) 3
    LCEULand Cover/Ecosystem (functional) Unit
    LTMPLong-Term Monitoring Program
    LULUCFLand Use Land Use Change and Forestry
    m-1reciprocal metre
    cubic metres
    mg m-3Megagram per cubic metre
    MLMegalitres
    mmMillimetres
    MMPMarine Monitoring Program
    Mt CMegatonnes of carbon
    naData not available
    NAPNon-Algal Particulates
    NCA(Queensland) Nature Conservation Act (1992)
    NERPNational Environmental Research Program
    NKSNet Capital Stock
    NOSNet Operating Surplus
    NPPNet Primary Productivity
    NPVNet Present Value
    NRMNatural Resource Management (region)
    NRMRNatural Resource Management Regions
    NSONational Statistical Office
    NTFPNon-Timber Forest Products
    NTPNet Taxes on Production
    NVSNational Visitors Survey
    OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    OUVOutstanding Universal Value
    PAYGPay As You Go
    persons per sq kmPersons per square kilometre
    PESPayment for Ecosystem Services
    PNParticulate Nitrogen
    PSIIPhotosystem II (inhibiting herbicides)
    PSUTPhysical Supply and Use Table
    QldQueensland
    Qld DAFQueensland Department of Agriculture and Fishing
    RBAReserve Bank of Australia
    RECCAPRegional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes
    RLSReef Life Survey
    RLSFReef Life Survey Foundation
    RMResource Management
    RRResource Rent
    SA1Statistical Area (Level) 1
    SEEASystem of Environmental-Economic Accounts
    SEEA-CFSystem of Environmental-Economic Accounts - Central Framework
    SEEA-EEASystem of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012 - Experimental Ecosystem Accounting
    SELTMPSocial and Economic Long Term Monitoring Program
    SESCAStandard Economic Sector Classification of Australia
    SISCAStandard Institutional Sector Classification of Australia
    SNASystem of National Accounts
    SoEState of the Environment (Report)
    sq kmSquare kilometres
    SUICSupply-Use Industry Classification
    SUPCSupply-Use Product Classification
    SUTSupply and Use Table
    TEVTotal Economic Value
    TNTotal Nitrogen
    TPTotal Phosphorus
    TRATourism Research Australia
    TSATourism Satellite Account
    TSSTotal Suspended Solids
    UNUnited Nations
    UNSCUnited Nations Statistical Commission
    VACPValue of Agricultural Commodities Produced