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Cultural Funding by Government, Australia methodology

Reference period
2012 - 2013
Released
30/05/2014
Next release Unknown
First release

Explanatory notes

Introduction

1 This publication contains estimates of Australian public expenditure for arts and cultural activities, facilities and services for the Australian Government, state and territory governments and local governments.

Collection, scope and coverage

2 Statistics for the Australian Government and state and territory governments were collected through the Survey of Cultural Funding by Government. Information was collected on the amount of recurrent and capital expenditure by Australian and state and territory government departments (including selected agencies and authorities) for heritage and arts cultural activities, facilities and services. Expenditure from other sources, such as donations, membership costs or entrance fees, has been excluded.

3 Agencies classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) as public trading enterprises (e.g. most performing arts venues) are not included in this collection, except to the extent of any subsidies (or capital funding) paid to them from government budgets.

4 Expenditure by government for major institutions which specialise in education of a cultural nature, such as the National Academy of Music, the National Institute of Dramatic Art, the Australian Ballet School and the Australian Film, Television and Radio School has been included. Expenditure on special libraries (e.g. parliamentary libraries), libraries in higher education institutions and schools is excluded.

5 In order to ensure that expenditure is not counted more than once within the whole of government sector, specific purpose grants received from other levels of government have been netted out of the expenditure for the receiving government.

Classification

6 Categories used in this publication have been aligned, where possible, with the Industry Classification from the Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications, 2008 (Second Edition)(cat. no. 4902.0).

7 For information about the divisions and categories used in this publication, please refer to the Appendix.

Sources and methods

Australian Government

8 The Australian Government refers to the federal (national) level of government.

9 Australian Government estimates have been compiled using information provided directly to the ABS by government departments.

State and territory governments

10 State and territory government information was obtained from a range of sources. Departments supplied details of their recurrent and capital expenditure on arts and culture. In addition, a number of agencies and authorities were directly contacted for information upon advice from their respective departments.

Local governments

11 Expenditure on arts and cultural activities by local government are included as part of the Local Government Finance Statistics collection undertaken by the ABS. From 2007-08, local government data has been classified according to the Local Government Purpose Classification (LGPC).

12 Local Government expenditure estimates are obtained from state and territory Local Government Grants Commission's data, or equivalent. Since 2010-11, figures were sourced at the 'total' level for Local Governments in Australia. This is less detail than in previous years, where figures were provided for a number of arts and culture categories.

State comparisons

13 Care should be taken when comparing the values between states and territories for some categories of expenditure as the expenditure details provided may vary according to the administrative arrangements existing in the respective states and territories.

Calculation of per person expenditure

14 Estimates of the resident population of Australia and the states and territories at the mid-point (December quarter) of each collection year are used to calculate per person expenditure. Population estimates have been obtained from Australian Demographic Statistics, September 2013 (cat. no. 3101.0). Estimates of expenditure per person have been rounded to the nearest ten cents.

15 To maintain consistency between levels of government, the same resident population estimates are used for all estimates of per person expenditure, regardless of the level of government under consideration.

Comparison with previous survey results

16 It should be noted that changes in the collection methodology and improvements in scope and coverage occurred in 2007-08. Therefore Australian and state and territory government funding data prior to, and including, 2006-07 are not comparable with more recent data.

17 Local government data were classified according to the Local Government Purpose Classification (LGPC) for the first time in 2007-08. Previously data were based on the Government Purpose Classification (GPC).

Further information

18 Current publications and other products released by the ABS are available from the ABS web site www.abs.gov.au. The ABS also issues a daily Release Advice on the web site which details products to be released in the week ahead.

19 For further information about these and related statistics, contact the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070.

Appendix - funding categories

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Introduction

The Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC) comprise three separate classifications: the Industry Classification; the Product Classification; and the Occupation Classification. These classifications focus on the economic side of culture and leisure activities - the way culture and leisure activities are linked to the economy through direct expenditure and employment.

In this publication, categories of expenditure have, where possible, been aligned with the activities covered by the Arts and Heritage divisions of the Industry Classification in the ACLC.

Arts

This division consists of units mainly engaged in the creation, manufacturing and sale of goods and services relating to literature, radio, television, film, digital content, visual arts and crafts, design, and performing arts including music.

The types of funding included in each category of this division are shown below.

Dance

Funding for the presentation of dance performances, including ballet, classical, modern or contemporary dance. Includes funding for the provision of choreography services.

Design

Funding for the creative, artistic and aesthetic design of objects, concepts, environments and services.

Drama

Funding for the presentation of theatrical performances, including comedy. Theatrical performances are those where a dramatic narrative is the primary focus.

Film and video production and distribution

Funding for the production or post-production of films, videos or other media containing moving images. Funding for the acquisition of distribution rights and the distribution of films and video productions for exhibition to motion picture theatres, television networks and stations and to other businesses for hire, sale or resale.

Literature and print media

Funding for creative writing and the printing, publishing and selling of hardcopy or electronic format literature products including books, newspapers, periodicals, articles and stories, magazines, sheet music, screenwriting and scriptwriting.

Multimedia

Funding for the development, creation and production of interactive content for digital products and services. Funding for the provision of electronic access to information services and broadcasting radio and television programs on the internet.

Music composition and publishing

Funding for the creation or publishing of musical compositions, or the creation or release of recordings of music or other audio material. Includes the wholesaling and retailing of recorded audio media, and the retailing of recorded video media.

Music performance

Funding for the performance of vocal and/or instrumental music. Includes funding of performance for the purpose of recording or for later broadcast.

Music theatre and opera

Funding for the presentation of performances of musical theatre or opera in which there is a relatively even balance between musical and theatrical elements.

Other arts

Funding for the administration, maintenance, operation, construction, etc. of arts and cultural activities and services that cannot be assigned to one of the preceding categories.

Includes funding for the following:

  • the administration of multi-arts grants
  • multi-arts festival
  • national, regional or local celebrations where the arts are the predominant activity
  • programs or projects which allow greater community access to the arts
  • teaching skills specific to the arts
  • designing or constructing sets or designing/making/hiring costumes
  • musical instrument retailing
  • copyright collection agencies
  • recorded media manufacturing
  • wholesaling or retailing recorded media containing computer games/software
  • still film and photographic libraries where the predominant activity is the sale of rights to photographs, etc.
  • drama and dance schools.
     

Other performing arts

Funding for the presentation of artistic performances which are not defined in the previously listed performing arts categories. Includes funding for the provision of services to music and the performing arts including services used in presentations, management and organisational issues, recruitment and the representation of performers and musicians.

Performing arts venues

Funding for the operation, construction or maintenance of venues mainly engaged in the presentation and rehearsal of performing arts.

Radio services and television services

Funding for radio or television program production and broadcasting. This includes national broadcasting services, commercial broadcasting services, community broadcasting services, subscription broadcasting services, subscription narrowcasting services and open narrowcasting services.

Visual arts and crafts

Funding for the production and retailing of one-off or limited series visual arts and crafts products in either traditional or contemporary styles including digital works. Visual arts and crafts products include paintings, murals, drawings, cartoons, prints, photographic works of art, art installations, sculpture, ceramics, pottery, jewellery, woven or printed textile art, clothing and wearables, carvings, furniture, glass craft, metal craft and leather craft. Commercial photography services are also included.

Heritage

This division consists of units mainly engaged in the management of sites and collections which represent the natural or cultural environment of Australia and the rest of the world. The sites and collections have historic, aesthetic, scientific, environmental or social significance. 'Significance' may be of relevance on an international, national or sub-national basis (i.e. state/territory, local region or community). This division also includes the retailing and restoration of antiques and collectibles.

The types of funding included in each category of this division are shown below.

Archives

Funding for the permanent (or long-term) preservation of unique records, selected because of their administrative, financial, legal, evidential or other information value, which are generally no longer required for the conduct of current activities by government agencies, non-government organisations or private individuals.

Funding for the provision of services which include the description and preservation of archival material and the provision of archival research and reference facilities. The archival records may be stored and accessed electronically or otherwise.

Art museums

Funding for the acquisition, collection management, conservation, interpretation, communication and exhibition of visual arts and crafts on the basis of their aesthetic and historic value. Visual arts and crafts include paintings, murals, drawings, cartoons, prints, photographic works of art, digital works of art, art installations, sculpture, ceramics, pottery, jewellery, woven or printed textile art, clothing and wearables, carvings, furniture, glass craft, metal craft and leather craft.

Environmental heritage

Funding for the operation, management of sites, areas and collections such as national parks, fauna and flora reserves, zoological parks, aquaria and botanic gardens.

Libraries

Funding for the acquisition, collection, conservation and loan of materials such as books, magazines, manuscripts, musical scores, recordings, maps and prints.

Funding for the provision of information services and facilities, research, information and materials that may be stored and accessed electronically or otherwise.

Other museums and cultural heritage

Funding for the acquisition, collection management, conservation, interpretation, communication and exhibition of Heritage objects and artefacts.

Glossary

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Capital expenditure

Expenditure of government funds on the creation of fixed assets (e.g. buildings additions, renovations, restorations etc.), land, buildings and intangible assets including expenditure on second-hand fixed assets, land acquisitions and capital grants for capital works or projects. Includes capital grants or payments to individuals, groups, organisations or other entities.

Recurrent expenditure

Expenditure of government funds on programs, specialist areas and special projects including operational costs, wages and salaries, goods and services, current grants and transfer payments, specific purpose grants and subsidies. Includes non-capital grants or payments to individuals, groups, organisations or other entities.

Quality declaration - summary

Institutional environment

For information on the institutional environment of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), including the legislative obligations of the ABS, financing and governance arrangements, and mechanisms for scrutiny of ABS operations, please see ABS Institutional Environment.

Relevance

The Cultural Funding collection provides estimates of Australian public expenditure on cultural heritage and arts activities, facilities and services funded by the three levels of government. The main users of these data are expected to be government agencies and various community groups with an interest in cultural activities. The collection results will be used to examine the levels of funding by the three levels of government and to monitor changes in funding over time. This information will assist in the planning and allocation of government funding for future programs.

Timeliness

The Cultural Funding by Government publication is released on an annual basis with data for each financial year published to the ABS website the following year. For example, data for the 2012-13 financial year was published in May 2014.

Accuracy

Cultural funding data are subject to non-sampling error. Non-sampling errors are inaccuracies that occur because of imperfections in reporting by respondents, and errors made in coding and processing data. These inaccuracies may occur in any enumeration, whether it be a full count or a sample. An example of non-sampling error affecting the Cultural Funding by Government collection is that funding has to be coded to the various Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC) categories by respondents and this may be subjective, with the possibility that different respondents may code similar funding to different categories. Every effort is made to reduce non-sampling error by careful design and testing of survey forms and thorough editing and quality control procedures.

Coherence

This collection is conducted on an annual basis and commenced in 1994-95. While seeking to provide a high degree of consistency and data comparability over time is a priority, sound survey practice requires continued maintenance and development to maintain the integrity of data and the efficiency of collections. In line with this, changes were made in 2007-08 to the methodology, scope and coverage of this collection with estimates compiled using information provided directly to the ABS by all in-scope government departments (including selected agencies, authorities and corporations). Prior to the 2007-08 collection, estimates were compiled from administrative by-product data obtained by the ABS from annual reports and budget papers, and from information provided by selected Australian Government authorities and state and territory governments.

Categories used in the Cultural Funding by Government publication have been aligned, where possible, with the Industry Classification of the Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications, 2008 (Second Edition) (cat. no. 4902.0).

Interpretability

Statistics for the Australian Government and state and territory governments relate mainly to funding from Australian and state and territory budgets. For some 'off budget' agencies (i.e. agencies which are authorised to operate their own bank accounts), only the funding from annual appropriations is included. Where agency information has not provided appropriate detail to comply with the ACLC categories in this publication, estimates have been used. Any funding from other sources, such as donations, membership costs or entrance fees, is excluded from analysis.

Accessibility

Cultural funding data collected by the ABS has previously been available in two publications. The ABS publication Cultural Funding by Government, Australia (cat. no. 4183.0), and an annual report produced by Statistics Working Group (SWG) entitled 'Cultural Funding in Australia: Three Tiers of Government', available for download free of charge from the website www.culturaldata.gov.au. SWG is a joint working group comprising representatives of a number of Australian Government arts agencies and the government arts agencies of New South Wales, Victorian Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. The ABS is also a member of this working group. In 2012 it was decided, in consultation with SWG, to combine the two publications into an expanded version of the Cultural Funding by Government, Australia (cat. no. 4183.0) publication. The 2010-11 collection was the first cycle to be released in this format.

Abbreviations

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$mmillion dollars
%percentage
ABSAustralian Bureau of Statistics
ACLCAustralian Culture and Leisure Classifications
ACTAustralian Capital Territory
GPCGovernment Purpose Classification
LGPCLocal Government Purpose Classification
necnot elsewhere classified
NSWNew South Wales
NTNorthern Territory
QldQueensland
SASouth Australia
Tas.Tasmania
Vic.Victoria
WAWestern Australia