The statistical information on this site may not be the latest. For the most up to date information visit the ABS website abs.gov.au

How to cite ABS sources

A guide on how to cite a range of ABS sources with examples provided

Universities, educational institutions and other users of ABS statistics may have their own guidelines for citing resources. This is a suggested guide, indicating key elements to include when referencing ABS sources.

General formatting guidelines

  • Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. Retrieval date. URL
  • Titles are written in italics
  • The retrieval date must be included as ABS content is designed to change over time and is continuously updated
  • Publisher name can be omitted from the reference as ABS is both the author and publisher
  • Include the URL in the reference
  • References should be listed alphabetically

ABS website

General web pages

Format: Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Name of Web site. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2020, January 06). 2016 Census Privacy Policy. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Government. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/home/privacypolicy?opendocument&navpos=110

Time series spreadsheets

Format: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of spreadsheet [Time series spreadsheet]. Title of issue. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2020). Table 01. Labour Force status by age, social marital status and sex [Time series spreadsheet]. Labour Force, Australia Feb 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/6291.0.55.001Feb%202020?OpenDocument

Data cubes

Format: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of data cube [Data set]. Title of issue. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Household income and income distribution, Australia. [Data cube]. Household income and wealth, Australia, 2017-18. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/6523.02017-18?OpenDocument#Data

Census material

Format: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of Census material. TIile of Census publication. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2016). People in Australia who were born in Italy. 2016 Census QuickStats Country of Birth. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/quickstat/3104_036

DotStat

Format: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of dotStat Table. Data by Theme. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2020). Consumer Price Index (CPI) 17th series: All groups CPI, by Capital CityEconomy, Price Indexes and Inflation. Retrieved February 20, 2020. http://stat.data.abs.gov.au/

Maps, tables and figures

Maps

Format: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of map [Type of map]. Title of publication. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Commuting distance to place of work [Interactive map]. Census of Population and Housing: Commuting to Work - More Stories from the Census 2016. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/2071.0.55.001~2016~Main%20Features~Commuting%20Distance%20to%20Place%20of%20Work~30

Tables

Format: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of table [Description of material]. Title of publication. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Projected households, Australia [Table]. Household and family projections, Australia, 2016 to 2041. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3236.0Main+Features12016%20to%202041?OpenDocument

Graphs

Format: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of graph [Description of material]. Title of publication. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Annual growth rate in student enrolments by state and territory, 2018 to 2019 [Graph]. Schools, Australia, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.Nsf/7d12b0f6763c78caca257061001cc588/4058adac898288ebca25783b001a9da1!OpenDocument

Images

Format: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of image. [Description of material]. Title of publication. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). 2016 Data in pictures: Australia. [Infographic image]. Census, 2016 Data in Pictures. Retrieved March 16, 2020. https://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/CensusOutput/copsub2016.nsf/All%20docs%20by%20catNo/Data-in-pictures/$FILE/australiaER.html

Social media

Facebook

Format: Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post. Platform Name. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2020, February 10). Are you following us on our other social platforms? Facebook. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/absstats/photos/a.729186063809402/2901722706555716/?type=3&theater

Instagram

Format: Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post [Description of post]. Platform Name. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. [@ABSStats]. (2020, February 20). Average weekly earnings around Australia. [Image]. Instagram. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://www.instagram.com/p/B8xqyKMA7s8/

Twitter

Format: Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day of post). Title or description of post. [Description of post]. Platform Name. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. [@ABSStats]. (2020, February 19). Wages rose 0.5% in the December quarter 2019. [Tweet]. Twitter. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://twitter.com/ABSStats/status/1229962630204448768

YouTube

Format: Author, A, A. (Year, Month Day of post). Title of video, [Video]. Title of Stream. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: ABSstatistics. (2020, March 19). Our numbers, our health stories-2018-19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey. [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved April 12, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wq9L0leiLbI

Census related posts

For census related posts do not include the day, month dates of posts as there are different publishing dates of census material and social media posts.

Format: Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year). Title or description of post. [Description of post]. Platform Name. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. [@ABSStats]. (2020). Vic holds Aus Open, as well as the most tennis coaches. [Image]. Instagram. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hm4bHIy8n/

 

Data services

Microdata

There are three different Microdata types including Basic Confidentialised Unit Record File (CURF), Expanded CURF and Detailed microdata.

Format: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of microdata [Microdata type]. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia, 2018. [Detailed microdata]. Retrieved February 20, 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4430.0.30.0022018?OpenDocument

TableBuilder

Format: Author A, A. (Year of publication). Title of TableBuilder product [TableBuilder]. Retrieved Month day, year. URL

Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2020). Employee earnings and hours, 2018. [TableBuilder]. Retrieved May 29, 2020. https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/6306.0.55.001Main%20Features20Australia?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=6306.0.55.001&issue=Australia&num=&view=

In-text citation

First citation

Format: (Source, Year)

Example: (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020)

Subsequent citations

Format: (Abbreviated Source, Year)

Example: (ABS, 2020)